Th ese eight forces are described as distinct entities, but in reality they can be indistinguishable from each other. For instance, the distinction is vague between therapeutic techniques and the therapist’s characteristics that contribute to change. As Leitner (2007) explained, “Becoming a psychotherapist is not about assembling a bag of tricks and learning the formula for matching tricks (i.e., techniques) with problems. What you do as a therapist emerges from who you are in the therapy room. … Th eory and technique wind up so
integrated into who the therapist is as a person that they lose their meanings” (p. 35). He contended that when techniques are not fully integrated, they are perceived by the client as an ingenuous reaction and feel like the therapist is doing something to the client. However, when they are fully incorporated into the therapist, the techniques become eff ective because they are seen as a spontaneous exposure of the therapist’s genuine reaction to the client.