The rise of political Islam, 1928–2000
This chapter looks at the conditions that paved the way for the rise of political Islam and the forces driving the quest for an Islamic state. It will outline the historical circumstances that led to the Islamic resurgence, particularly in the second half of the twentieth century, as well as the Muslim political debate. Drawing upon the case studies of the Islamic revolution in Iran and Islamic resistance in the Middle East, Central and South-East Asia, it will analyse the emergence of Islamist movements, their aims, their strategies, their philosophical
underpinnings and the specific conditions that have shaped them. Finally, it will discuss the shifts in political Islam triggered by the end of the Cold War, American hegemony and globalization.