Current Developments in Psychosocial Treatments of Alcohol and Substance Abuse
Cocaine The results of the NIDA Collaborative Cocaine Treatment Study, a multisite randomized clinical trial of psychosocial treatments of 487 patients with cocaine dependence, were published in 1999 (Crits-Christoph et al., 1999).4 Five research sites examined whether professional psychotherapy (plus group drug counseling) added to the benefits of group drug counseling (GDC) alone and were superior to the benefits of individual drug counseling (IDC) (plus group drug counseling). The psychotherapies were CBT and psychodynamic supportive-expressive (SE) psychotherapy. All treatments were manualized. SE was a focal psychodynamic psychotherapy that views the problems associated with the use of cocaine and with its cessation in the context of understanding the person and interpersonal relationship difficulties. Cognitive Therapy of Substance Abuse/Dependence was based on Beck's cognitive model. IDC followed a manual with specific stages, tasks, and goals based on the 12-step philosophy. GDC was designed to educate patients about the stages of recovery from addiction, to strongly encourage participation in 12-step programs, and to provide a supportive group atmosphere for initiating abstinence and alternative lifestyle. Treatment lasted for 6 months. More specific details about the study design can be found elsewhere (Crits-Christoph et al., 1997).