Focus on Personality Disorder
As described previously, personality disorders are serious, long-term conditions that can affect many areas of an individual's life. Links have been found between childhood neglect and abuse and a number of different types of Personality Disorder. Examples of these include Avoidant Personality Disorder, Antisocial Personality Disorder and Dependent Personality Disorder (Johnson J.G. et al. 2000; Johnson D.M. et al. 2003). Childhood sexual abuse has also been linked to Borderline Personality Disorder in many studies (Ogata et al. 1990; Silk et al. 1995). However, it is important to recognise that not everyone who has a Personality Disorder has been abused and that childhood sexual abuse does not automatically lead to these kinds of dif®culties (Fossati et al. 1999). A full list of the personality disorders and a detailed description of them from a psychiatric perspective can be found in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (APA 1980). Similarly, a more experiential and interpersonal description can be found in the Psychodynamic Diagnostic Manual (PDM Task Force 2006).