chapter  3
6 Pages

1 Orientation

Each chapter continues to be accompanied by “Teaching Tips,” “Classroom implications,” and “Teaching Help” boxes. ese are intended to help the reader reect on issues of best practice. In order to facilitate your usage of the book, activities have been modied for all levels of ESOL. e four levels are Preproduction (level 1), Early Production (level 2), Speech Emergence (level 3), and Intermediate Fluency (level 4); see Part 1 for a detailed description of what ELLs are linguistically capable of at each level.