Continental Europe is often credited with the creation of both terrorism and nationalism in the form of the French Revolution and its subsequent Reign of Terror. Revolutionary leader Maximilien Robespierre went so far as to proclaim that “Terrorism is nothing other than justice . . . a consequence of the general principle of democracy” and that the first maxim of the new administration must be to “lead the people’s enemies by terror” (1794). The use of terrorism as a means to a nationalist end continued into the early twentieth century with the growth of Serbian separatism and the assassination of Austro-Hungarian Archduke Ferdinand and the inception of World War I.