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The attacks on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon on September 11, 2001 caused a resurgence of interest in terrorism studies in the United States and throughout the world. Although scholars have examined many factors related to terrorism, including nationalism and globalization, the influence of gender on terrorism has received comparatively less attention. Alan Bairner contends that such studies “have endeavored relatively successfully to neglect the issue of gender,” but adds that they cannot “be fully understood without reference to gender” (2001: 21, 26).