chapter  2
12 Pages

Beginnings to 1000 BCE

It is well-established that beginning around 3000 BCE there was a marked increase in the frequency and length of journeys in the region of the Middle East and North Africa, the area bounded by Egypt’s Nile River in the west and, in the east, the region of the Indus River in today’s Pakistan. Important travel also extended south, in Africa, from Egypt. Travel patterns prior to the development of the early river valley civilizations, however, are less clear.