Procurement methods and types of contract
There was a time when procurement was very much prescribed. The client would appoint an architect who would select the rest of the design team. This would include the quantity surveyor and structural engineer. If the client was experienced, they may have employed the other members of the design team directly. Bills of quantities were produced as explained in Chapter 9. Contractors would tender for the work, and the lowest price, especially for public-sector work, determining who would be awarded the contract. Contractors worked to the letter of the contract using every clause available to obtain extra payment. The result was often confrontation between the design team and the contractor, the client picking up the bill at the end.