Geospatial Modeling and GIS / 201Section
How did we know where to put the pins in Figure 1.3? The process of identifying locations to be placed on a map is called geocoding, in other words, coding the location of an object, a place, an event, a building, or an address where something of interest took place. At its most basic, something can be geocoded by knowing its latitude and longitude; for example, the capital of California, Sacramento, is located at 38.581N latitude and −121.493W longitude. However, unless you really know your longitudes and latitudes, this is not very helpful if your task is to place Sacramento in the proper location. However, with ArcGIS software (and other GIS software packages) this can be useful information for geocoding the locations of the capitals. One of the useful options in ArcMap is the option to identify an object on the map. This option can be selected by clicking on the tool bar in the upper left-hand portion of the ArcMap screen as shown in Figure 1.4.