For European ofﬁcials in the mid-eighteenth century, military planning operated on a campaign-by-campaign basis. During the winter months, usually between December and April, ﬂurries of correspondence exchanged hands between and within Europe’s cabinets. In Versailles, Vienna, St Petersburg and other capitals in Kaunitz’s grand coalition, ministers discussed strategies and negotiated agreements for co-ordinating the operations of a half-dozen different armies. In London and Berlin, meanwhile, war planning occurred in relative isolation. Although British and Prussian leaders shared sympathy, information and a few strategic goals, their military concert went little beyond an initial exchange of advice, some notices of each other’s needs and intentions, and reciprocal wishes for good luck.