Motive: The Negotiator’s Raison d’Être
From the early days of the field to today, social psychologists consider goals and motives as central elements of negotiation, indeed, as the raison d’être, its reason for being (see Carnevale & Pruitt, 1992; Druckman, 1977). Thus, negotiation has been called “mixed-motive” interaction (Schelling, 1960) to reflect the fact that the parties involved simultaneously experience the motivation to cooperate and compete with each other. For example, a negotiator may prefer an agreement that satisfies her interests over one that favors her adversary’s interests (an incentive to compete), while at the same time preferring any agreement over no agreement (an incentive to cooperate). In this chapter, we review social psychological work on negotiation and social conflict that considers goals and motives. We emphasize early, important studies conducted in the 1970s, and place them in context of current trends and developments. Much of our discussion reflects and supports a model of motivation and cognition in negotiation that we refer
to as the motivated information processing model of negotiation (De Dreu & Carnevale, 2003).