International security is achieved by conﬂict management, and conﬂict management is accomplished above all by negotiation. It is not the expensive military hardware that assures the security of a state and its inhabitants, but the diplomacy associated with its use and non-use. Insecurity arises from problems unsolved and conﬂicts unmanaged; it is the solution of problems and the resolution of conﬂicts that bring security to states in their relations with each other and to the populations they contain. Only when insufﬁcient attention and effort are devoted to solutions and resolutions, are defense and armaments – ultima ratio regis (“the king’s ﬁnal argument”) as a seventeenth-century cannon bore on its barrel – brought into action. At that point, even military means may not assure security, and in any case, negotiation and management of conﬂict are more necessary than ever.