The traditional aims and methods of mindfulness practice were introduced in Chapter 1. Its application to the whole ®eld of mental health has depended upon the use of mindfulness within psychological treatments used to alleviate mental suffering. These take a variety of forms, in which the contribution of mindfulness may be covert as well as explicit. This chapter surveys the growing range of therapeutic approaches that are bringing mindfulness to bear on emotional dif®culties. The scope of these is potentially vast, and where it is necessary to give greater priority to some than others, this will re¯ect their availability (particularly within public mental health services) and theoretical signi®cance.