chapter  10
53 Pages

Mobile telephony-delivered Internet services and codes of conduct to protect minors from adult content

Mobile services (Table 10.1, Figure 10.1) have been used to serve web pages to European users since approximately 2000. The first generation of mobile Internet devices used Wireless Application Protocol (WAP) to deliver specially programmed, normally simplistic and graphic-poor pages over narrowband Global System for Mobile (GSM) networks. These 2G networks delivered data at about 65 per cent of the speed of the modems used for fixed-line computers circa 1994/5. The screen for GSM-only devices was typically monochrome and very small, and the pixilation (granularity) of the screen means that photographic images are cartoon-like. Text services (short messaging services, or SMS) on GSM devices have developed as 160character text messages, rather than WAP-enabled chat or listserve.