Recent Developments in Civic Education: The Case of Japan
The structure of the school system in Japan is based on a 6-3-3-4 (or 2) system. This means that there are 6 years allotted for elementary, 3 years for junior high, and 3 years for senior high school education, plus an additional 2 or 4 years for college and/or university. Only elementary and junior high schools are compulsory. However, more than 97% of junior high school graduates continue directly on to high school, and approximately 45% go on to university or college (Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science, and Technology, 2000).