The first Gulf War was a success story, at least initially. We won the war decisively, remarkably few soldiers were killed or wounded given the large deploy ment to the Gulf, and most of our soldiers returned soon after the final battles. Years after the war was over many Gulf War veterans surfaced complaining of head ache, joint pain, abdominal pain, sleep problems, and other symptoms. This surprised the military and the health care profession. Their symptoms were coa lesced into a new diagnosis-Gulf War syndrome. A presidential commission was established, and the National Research Council was called on to shed light on the emergence of these symptoms and to explain their cause. Many medical scientists redirected their research to this new syndrome. The Gulf War appeared to give birth to a new disease. Or did it?