A debate has been waged far too long regarding nature and nurture, genes and environment, biological and social. E.O. Wilson, in describing the “webwork of causal explanation,” lamented,
The explanatory network now touches the edge of culture itself. It has reached the boundary that separates the natural sciences on the one side from the humanities and humanistic social sciences on the other. … From Apollonian law to Dionysian spirit, prose to poetry, left cortical hemisphere to right, the line between the two domains can be easily crossed, … but no one knows how to trans late the tongue of one into that of the other. … Few can deny that the division between the two cultures is a perennial source of mis understanding and conflict. (p. 125)3
If a new and meaningful basic social science of psychiatry is to emerge, science must recognize and incorporate body, brain, mind, and society. Yet this science should not demand that we propose a grand theory that suggests that depression accounts for every contributing factor. Grand theories have been proposed to integrate the physical, psychological, and social origins of depression, and these
theories are overwhelming conceptually and virtually impossible to investigate scientifically.