chapter
2 Pages

Introduction

Before the 1979 Revolution, most professional Iranian journalists, that is those who relied on journalism as their main or only source of income, worked in newspapers which were not independent of the state. On the other hand, many of those who wrote for the independent press relied either on personal wealth or on income from other activities, very often working for the government. The full-time journalists usually referred to their occupation as khedmat or service – rather similar to being enlisted in the armed forces.1 Writing for the independent press was often considered not a career, but a mission to enlighten the public.