Nutritional strategies for football: Counteracting heat, cold, high altitude, and jet lag
The energy requirement for competitive football is large and is influenced by many factors. The mean rate of aerobic energy production for elite players is 70-80% of maximal aerobic power during the course of a 90 min match. The energy cost of an entire match is 5-6 MJ (1195-1434 kcal), depending on the total distance covered (~10-11 km) and the style of play (Bangsbo, 1994; Ekblom, 1986). These values reflect environmental, physiological, tactical, and technical factors (Kuzon et al., 1990; Mohr, Krustrup, & Bangsbo, 2003; Shephard, 1999).