Physical and metabolic demands of training and match-play in the elite football player
Since the last FIFA conference on nutrition in soccer in 1994, soccer at the elite level has developed and much research regarding match performance and training has been conducted. It is also clear that science has been incorporated to a greater extent in the planning and execution of training. Earlier scientific studies focused on the overall
physiological demands of the game, for example by performing physiological measurements before and after the game or at half-time. As a supplement to such information, some recent studies have examined changes in both performance and physiological responses throughout the game with a special focus on the most demanding activities and periods. New technology has made it possible to study changes in match performance with a high time resolution. Another aspect to have received attention in practical training is information regarding individual differences in the physical demands to which players are exposed in games and training. These differences are not only related to the training status of the players and their playing position, but also to their specific tactical roles. Thus, some top-class clubs have integrated the tactical and physical demands of the players into their fitness training.