In Africa, European colonization and decolonization were both rapid (27). Until the ‘scramble for Africa’ in the 1880s, Europeans had controlled only a few coastal strips and some areas in the extreme south and north (34, 39). Then, within one century, nearly all of Africa came under European rule and re-emerged as independent states. Long guerrilla wars preceded the liberation of Algeria, Angola and Zimbabwe (Southern Rhodesia); but most of the other states attained independence peacefully. In 1977 it came to Djibouti, the last area ruled from Europe in ‘black’ or sub-Saharan Africa (that is, excluding Arab North Africa: [39, 40] ). Rule by white minorities was ended in Zimbabwe in 1980, in Namibia in 1990, in South Africa in 1994.