Iraq’s ruler, Saddam Hussein Takriti, invaded Iran in the mistaken belief that its army was too shaken by the Shah’s fall (47) to offer much resistance. By 1982 the invaders had been pushed back to the frontier in most sectors. Saddam sued for peace, but the Iranian rulers said they would ﬁght on until he was brought down. They had blocked Basra, Iraq’s only port; Iraq could export oil by pipeline, but all its imports had to come in by costly road transport. Although Saddam obtained subsidies from Kuwait and Saudi Arabia, Iraq’s economy was hard hit.