Brazil represents what was Portugal’s empire in the Americas. The former Spanish empire is represented by the 18 Hispanic (Spanish-speaking) republics; they include two in the Caribbean: Cuba and the Dominican Republic. Haiti was once a French possession. These 20 Latin republics, with the United States, were members of the Pan-American Union, which was succeeded in 1948 by the Organization of American States (OAS); in 1947 they concluded the Rio treaty, providing for joint action if any of the 21 members was attacked. In 1962, Cuba’s participation in the OAS was suspended. Since 1991 all 35 independent American countries have been members.