Subject Traditions’ and Interest Groups
In their study of professions Bucher and Strauss (1976) developed a number of valuable guidelines which are of use in studying school subjects. Within a profession they discerned varied identities, values and interests and they characterized professions as: ‘loose amalgamations of segments pursuing different objectives in different manners and more or less delicately held together under a common name at particular periods in history (p. 19). Most frequently professional conflicts arose, they noted, over the acquisition of institutional footholds, over recruitment and over external relations with clients and institutions. At times when conflicts such as these became intense professional associations were created, or if already in existence, became more strongly institutionalized.