Process monitoring and research involves approaches and methods ranging from intensive field work by full-time independent researchers (e.g. Salmen's (1987) participant-observer evaluators) to periodic reviews and reflections by agency field staff; and from open-ended ethnography-like field notes, to highly structured and selective reporting on significant events. This range is best explored through examples, and that is the purpose of this chapter. The examples start with information systems which emphasise external research and documentation (usually referred to as process documentation research, or PDR) and then move to those in which process work is more part of the stream of development initiatives itself. In reviewing different methods, a number of issues will be raised.