CHANGING CIRCULATION RELATIONS: INSTITUTIONALIZING ALIENATION
Chapter 3 described a set of changes that appeared only in restricted areas of retail trade in a restricted number of localities. They did not remain restricted. From the middle of the nineteenth century they spread to more and more branches of retail trade in more and more different areas . As they spread they became manifest in a set of institutional practices that increased the imperson ality of retail trade, and hence of the objects that people acquired through it. I describe that spread and those practices in this chapter.