In 1991 the member states of the European Community (EC) were deep in negotiations over a Treaty on European Union.1 These negotiations were to pave the way for the development of a political Union, to go alongside the deepening economic integration of the west European states. The discussions were taking place in a new political climate. The Cold War was over; security and foreign policy concerns regarding the immediate eastern neighbours were changing; Germany was reunifying and the former East Germany was being tied into the new Union. Meanwhile, waves of refugees and migrants were expected to be on their way from former socialist states. Security, foreign policy, and asylum and immigration policies were therefore high on the agenda. The European Union (EU) states saw the need to stand together and draw closer on these issues.