ON A SCOPE RECONSTRUCTION PARADOX
Chapters 3-6 all involved, to some extent, the syntax of A-movement. This chapter considers one aspect of the semantics of A-movement – the scope of an A-moved quantifier. In the early 1980s, Chomsky observed that while a universal quantifier in subject position can take scope under clausal negation, if such a quantifier undergoes subject raising to subject position, it cannot take scope under negation in the clause where it originated. Based on the conclusions of Chapters 3 and 4, I show that Chomsky’s observation extends to “subject raising to object position” as well, thus supporting Chomsky’s claim that there is no A-movement scope reconstruction. However, the phenomenon of “quantifier lowering” is widely assumed to be exactly A-movement scope reconstruction. To attempt to resolve this paradox, I suggest here that quantifier lowering might not exist, and I display several configurations where it would be expected to obtain but does not.