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not deterred by the political obstacles repeatedly laid in his path. It is, however, noticeable that MacDonald had the complete co-operation of his permanent staff in the definition and advance of his policy. There is no sign of that tension between officials and Secretary of State which had sometimes accompanied earlier ministerial initiatives. The influence of the debates on the colonial question and of the new ideas of constructive trusteeship may be seen in the conversion of the Colonial Office itself and in the eager support which the permanent officials gave to MacDonald and his plans.