The Consequences of the Introduction and Spread of Modern Education: Education and National Integration in Egypt
The beginnings of the modernization process in Egypt date back to the French invasion (1798-1799), which really revolutionized Egyptian thought. It provided the leaders with an opportunity to compare and contrast the two vastly differing cultures: the medieval Muslim and the modern scientific outlook. The old culture was subjected to a severe test, and in response, Egypt undertook a series of changes to modify its traditional culture. It would seem, however, that the most important social change brought about by this contact was the development of modern secular education, introduced during Muhamad Ali’s rule (1805-1849), which was vastly different from the already existing religious system of education. The result of this innovation was the creation of an educational system rivalling the traditional religious one but not supplanting it.