Implementing the new city planning system of 1968
As noted above, the new city planning system ran into serious problems during its imple- mentation during the 1970s, and by the end of the decade it was understood that sprawl had not been stopped, haphazard development was continuing apace, and new revisions to the planning system were being drafted. The almost complete failure of the new city planning and national land planning systems to fulfil their stated goals stands in striking
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The result was that the vast majority of urban development occurred as unplanned, unserviced sprawl with tiny developments of a few houses along existing farm lanes and on short dead-end lanes extending from them. The term “sprawl” (supurôru) has a slightly different meaning in Japan than in the other developed countries. In Japan the term refers to haphazard, unserviced development along existing rural lanes. That was a common usage of the term in the West before the Second World War, but such development has been mostly eliminated in the years since, and the term “sprawl” is now more commonly used to refer to patterns of metropolitan growth that spread over larger areas than necessary because of low densities, leapfrog development that leaves large tracts undeveloped, or patterns of development that tend to reduce accessibility and increase road use and congestion (Cervero 1989; Ewing 1997).