12 Pages


While these efforts to craft a more effective system for detailed local planning and local environmental improvement were being pursued, another major wave of change to the city planning system was building. Starting in the early 1980s, and peaking during the five years that Nakasone Yasuhiro was prime minister (1982–87), deregulation and

It is important not to underestimate the impact of the shift in the global ideological climate of the late 1970s and early 1980s. While the neo-conservative revolution was possibly most influential under the Thatcher and Reagan regimes in Britain and the US, its impact was felt much more widely. The decade of stagflation of the 1970s with its declining economic growth and damaging inflation had deeply shocked many in the developed countries, and had greatly undermined confidence in the Keynesian welfare state model of increasing government intervention in the economy and increasing state spending to provide a social safety net and reduce social inequalities. Many were persuaded that while that model had seemed to work well during the booming post-war decades, those approaches were no longer viable, and smaller governments and greater reliance on free markets were the solution to the economic troubles of the past decade.