Ministers and civil servants
In this chapter we examine personnel working within the core executive. These comprise two main groups: elected politicians (ministers) and the permanent officials who serve them (civil servants). Both groups have experienced considerable change in recent years. Ministers, who collectively form the government, have ‘multiple roles’ which have changed in recent decades (Marsh et al., 2000, p. 305). The civil service has also undergone radical change through developments such as Next Steps and market testing and the appearance of alternative sources of policy advice such as special advisers and taskforces.