chapter  4
38 Pages

Shooting 3D for Broadcast or Editing

Registering the Cameras 4HE CAMERA SHOULD BE CALIBRATED IN COLORIMETRIC AND GEOMETRIC SPACES 4HIS OPERATIONISMUCHEASIERONASIDE BY SIDERIGFORTHEOPTICALMIRRORWILLNEVER BECOLORNEUTRALANDREQUIRESMOREATTENTIONINSPATIALALIGNMENTOFTHECAM ERAS7HENLEARNINGTHEPROCESSITISBETTERTOSTARTWITHAN3"3RIGANDTHENGET INTOMIRRORRIGSWHENYOUFEELATEASEWITHTHEPROCESS

SEAN FAIRBURN REGISTRATION CHART

6ETERANCINEMATOGRAPHER"3EAN&AIRBURNPRODUCEDA$CHARTWITH$3#LABS TOHELPINALIGNINGCAMERAS4HISCHARTISLOADEDWITHFEATURESANDDETAILSUSE FULTOSTEREOGRAPHICPRODUCTIONSIMPLIFYINGCAMERAREGISTRATION

7HEN3EANISDONEWITHTHECAMERAALIGNMENTHESETSTHERIGTOITSMAXIMUM INTERAXIAL AND RECORDS SOME FOOTAGE OF THE CHART THE LEFT AND RIGHT CAMERAS SHOOTMOSTLY THE LEFTOR RIGHTHALFOF THECHART SHOWINGh,vORh2v TAGS4HIS WILLBEVERYUSEFULFORFUTUREREFERENCEINPOSTPRODUCTIONORFORFEEDIDENTIlCA TIONATTHE/"TRUCK

STEREO TANGO ALIGNMENT PROCEDURE

%VERY RIG AND EVERY STEREOGRAPHER HAS HIS OR HER OWN REGISTRATION PROCEDURE 4HEYALLINCLUDETHESAMELISTOFITEMSWITHSUBTLEVARIATIONSINTHEORDERDUE TOPERSONALTASTEEXPERIENCEORARIGSMECHANICALDESIGN&OREXAMPLEHEREIS THEALIGNMENTPROCEDUREFROMTHE$#AMERA#OMPANY

Calibrating the Cameras )N6&8VISUALEFFECTS THERULEISTOSHOOTALLSORTSOFCALIBRATIONFOOTAGEFORLATER REFERENCECLEANBACKGROUNDPLATESLIGHTREFERENCESANDSOON#ONSIDERINGTHAT ALL$SHOTSAREAPOTENTIAL&8SHOTIFCORRECTIONISNEEDED ITISALWAYSADVIS ABLETOCONSIDERSHOOTINGSOMEREFERENCEWHENUSINGAMIRRORRIG

7HENCALIBRATINGYOURCAMERASALWAYSUSETHETRANSMISSIVECAMERAASTHEMAS TERANDADJUSTTHEREmECTIVECAMERA4HETRANSMISSIVECAMERAGETSAMUCHLESS DAMAGEDLIGHTBEAMTHIS ISBECAUSETHEREmECTIVECAMERASUFFERS FROMALL THE DEFAULTSOF THEMIRROROPTICAL ANDCHROMATICABERRATIONSBEINGGENERATEDBY THEUNEVENLIGHTREmECTION/BVIOUSLYWHENYOUARESHOOTING$FORCINEMA YOU KEEP ALL THE COLOR ADJUSTMENTS ASMETADATA AND RECORD RAW IMAGERY &OR BROADCAST$YOULLAPPLYTHECORRECTIONINTHECAMERAUNLESSOTHERWISESTATED BYTHEIMAGEANALYZERYOUREUSING

3ETTING THEWHITE REFERENCE REQUIRESMUCHlNERWORK THAN IN$ )F THECOLOR SHIFTS ON A $ CUT ITS NOT A BIG ISSUE (OWEVER IN $ YOU WANT TO AVOID THIS RETINAL RIVALRY WHERE THE LEFT AND RIGHT EYE DO NOT SEE THE SAME COLORS /PTIMALLYBALANCEDWHITEBALANCE ISDONEWITH IMAGEANALYZERS INAPERFECT WORLD THE SETTINGS ARE SENT TO THE CAMERAVIA THE3$) CONTROL CHANNELORBY

PROGRAMMINGSETTINGCARDS$UAL CHANNELVECTORSCOPESOR2'"HISTOGRAMSWILL GETYOUGREATCALIBRATIONTOO)FYOUHAVENOOTHERRESOURCEENCODEYOURSTEREO INTOAFRAME COMPATIBLE$IMAGELIKEASIDE BY SIDEANDFEEDITTOAREGULAR $COLOR TIMEDDISPLAY9OULLHAVEBOTHYOURLEFTANDRIGHTIMAGESONSCREEN TOCOMPARETHEM

Setting the Depth 4HE ART OF STEREOSCOPIC PHOTOGRAPHY LIES MOSTLY IN MASTERING INTERAXIAL AND CONVERGENCE!SYOUKNOWTHEINTERAXIALDISTANCEWILLSETTHEOVERALLVOLUMEOF YOURSCENEWHEREASTHECONVERGENCEWILLMOVEITALONGTHEDEPTHAXIS)FTHESE ARENEWCONCEPTSTOYOUWEREFERYOUTOOTHERBOOKSTHATINTRODUCETHESECON CEPTSANDEXPLAINTHEIRAPPLICATIONIN$PRODUCTION

2EGARDING $ 46 AND CINEMA PRODUCTION ONE IMPORTANT DISCRIMINATING FACTOR IS THE SCREEN SIZE 4HEmagnification factor DElNED AS THE RATIOOF THE SCREENSIZE TO THEVIEWINGDISTANCEMAKES THEMTWODIFFERENT$MEDIUMS 4HEYARECOMPATIBLEˆITISTECHNICALLYPOSSIBLETOWATCHA$MOVIEONA46 SETANDTOALESSEREXTENTTOSHOOT$46CONTENTTHATWILLBEWATCHABLEINA THEATER3TILL THEMATHEMATICALOVERLAPISSMALLANDTHEEXPERIENCESARENOT OPTIMAL

/N SET YOULL GENERALLYHAVE TWO CHANCES AT SETTING THEDEPTH!lRST ARTISTIC PASSSETSTHEINTERAXIALANDCONVERGENCEACCORDINGTOTHESETMETRICSANDARTISTIC INTENT!SECONDPASSISATECHNICALREHEARSALWITHACONVERGENCEPULLERTOFOL LOWTHEACTIONIFNEEDED

4HEREAREMANYAPPROACHESTOGETTINGTHElRSTPASSQUICKANDNICE9OUCANSET THEINTERAXIALlRSTANDTHENTHECONVERGENCEASSUMINGTHATTHEFEWPIXELSTHAT PUSHBACKATCONVERGENCEWILLNOTAFFECTTHEOVERALLVOLUMEPERCEPTION/RAS EXPLAINEDBYSTEREOGRAPHER!LAIN$EROBEINHISh.ATURAL$EPTHvMETHODYOU CAN SET THE CONVERGENCE BASED ON AN ARBITRARY INTERAXIAL AND THEN lNE TUNE THAT INTERAXIALASSUMINGTHAT THE INTERAXIALCHANGEWILLNOTAFFECT THECONVER GENCEPLANE

TRANSPORTING 3D TO THE VISION MIXER OR RECORDER 6IRTUALLYALL$CAMERAUNITSAREQUITEBIGWITHTHEIRDUALHEADSLENSESMIR RORS ANDMOTION CONTROLS %VERYTHING THAT CANNOTBEMINIATURIZEDHAS TOBE TETHERED AS FAR AWAY AS PRACTICALLY POSSIBLE 4HE POSSIBILITY OF DEPORTING THE IMAGE PROCESSING FROM THE CAMERA HEADS WAS A SEMINAL FEATURE OF THE 3ONY CAMERASUSEDFORTHElRSTMOTION CONTROL$RIGSCREATEDAT0!#%($,INKING THERIGTOTHE/"VANORTHERECORDERDECKCANBEDONEHIGH ENDSTYLEWITHTWO FULL RESOLUTION($LINKSORBYUSINGACHEAPERANDMORERESILIENTPROCESSTHE FRAME COMPATIBLEFORMATS

Stereoscopic HD-SDI h$UPLICATE EVERYTHINGv IS THE BASICMODUS OPERANDI OF STEREOSCOPIC PRODUC TIONS#ABLESARENOEXCEPTIONTOTHISRULEWITHTHECOMPLEXITYONECANIMAG INE (OWEVER IN SOME CASES ESPECIALLY FOR REMOTE CAMERA POSITIONS YOULL WANTTORUNSINGLECABLES

!SAREMINDERWELLDESCRIBETHESERIALDIGITAL INTERFACEFAMILYOFSTANDARDSAT ($RESOLUTIONS

■ 3-04%-THELEGACY($ 3$)PANDIRESOLUTIONS ■ 3-04% - THE DUAL LINK ($ 3$) FOR ENCODINGS AND P RESOLUTIONS

■ 3-04%-THE'($ 3$)BASICALLYTWO3-04%-ONASINGLECABLE

!LTHOUGH ' 3$) CAN BE USED TO ACTUALLY TRANSPORT STEREOSCOPIC STREAMS IT HASNOTBEENSTANDARDIZEDYETANDHASBEENDUBBED$OVER'3TILLHIGHER BITRATESARENEEDEDAND THEYWILLBESTANDARDIZEDBY3-04%FORSTEREOSCOPIC ENCODING2'"COLORSPACE BITSCOLORDEPTHANDHIGHERFRAMERATESIN PROGRESSIVEMODES)NTHEMEANTIMEWERELYONVENDORSOLUTIONSTOMULTIPLEX IMAGESTREAMSONSINGLELINKS

3TEREOSCOPIC PRODUCTIONWAS AN EARLY ADOPTER OF lBERGLASS CABLING FOR SIGNAL TRANSPORT !T )"# 4ELECAST #ORPORATION PRESENTED A lBER CONVERTER THAT

CAN TRANSPORT UP TO THREE ' STREAMS ON A SIN GLE THREAD 4HIS DEVICE ALLOWS THE SENDING OF TWO SIGNALS AT FULL COLOR DEPTH TO THE IMAGE PROCESSING UNITS AS WELL AS THE RECEIPT OF A STEREOSCOPIC IMAGE THAT INCLUDES MOTION CON TROLCOMMANDSINTHEANCILLARYDATA

Frame-Compatible Formats 3TEREOSCOPICPRODUCTIONREUSESALOTOF$GEARANDSETUPS)NSOMECASES$ TOOLSHAVEENOUGHBANDWIDTHANDCONNECTORSTOPROCESSTWO($STEAMSAND ACLEVERCONlGURATIONORASOFTWAREUPDATEMAKESTHEM$3OMETIMESTWOOF THEMARESYNCHEDANDUSEDINPARALLELSOMETIMESYOUMUSTDEALWITHASINGLE ($CHANNELCAPACITYTOTRANSPORTORPROCESS$)NTHESECASESTHE$WILLBE ENCODEDINA$FRAME COMPATIBLEFORMAT&#&

BASIC FCF

4HEBASICPROCESSOFFRAME COMPATIBLEFORMATTINGISTODROPHALFTHERESOLUTION ANDPACKTHEREMAININGANAMORPHICVERSIONSOFTHELEFTANDRIGHTIMAGESINTO ASINGLE$IMAGE-OSTBASIC&#&SHAVETHESELF EXPLANATORYSIDE BY SIDE3"3 ANDTOP AND BOTTOM4!" IMAGEARRANGEMENT!THIRDFORMATISTHEline interleavedFORMWITHHORIZONTALLINESALTERNATELYDESCRIBINGTHELEFTORRIGHTIMAGES 4HIS IS THEDISPLAY FORMATOF THE CURRENT GENERATIONOFPASSIVE$46WHICH USES!RIZAWAPATTERNPOLARIZERS4HISWASALSOUSEDINANALOG46TORECORDLEFT ANDRIGHTVIEWSONSEPARATEDlELDS&ORTHISREASONYOULLSEEINTERLEAVED&#& $ REFERRED TO AS hPASSIVEv IN RECENT DISPLAY LITERATURE AND hACTIVEv IN OLDER MATERIAL"OTHAREEQUALLYINACCURATE

4HEMAINPROBLEMWITH&#&ISOBVIOUSLYTHELOSSOFRESOLUTIONANDTHEVALUE OF EACH FORMAT RESULTS FROM THE DIRECTION OF THE RESOLUTION DECIMATION 4HE SIDE BY SIDESEEMSTOBEPREFERREDFORMANYREASONSFOREXAMPLEEXPERIENCED STEREOGRAPHERSCANWATCHITIN$USINGTHEhFREEVIEWINGvTECHNIQUETHATCON SISTSINVOLUNTARILYCONVERGINGORDIVERGINGTHEIREYESIGHTUNTILTHELEFTANDRIGHT IMAGESOVERLAPANDTHESTEREOSCOPICIMAGESFUSEINTOA$ONE

&OR INTERLACED I VIDEO 3"3 IS BETTER THAN 4!" FOR EACH FRAME STILL HAS LINESRATHERTHAN&ORPROGRESSIVEPVIDEO4!"ISBETTERTHAN3"3 BECAUSETHE$HORIZONTALRESOLUTIONACTUALLYDElNESTHEDEPTHRESOLUTION

6ARIOUS STANDARDIZATION GROUPS EXPLICITLY RECOMMEND OR IMPOSE 3"3 AS THE IFORMATAND4!"FORPWITHTHELEFTIMAGEONTHELEFTORTOPPARTOF THE FRAME RESPECTIVELY4HIS ROUGHPROCESS ISESPECIALLYEFlCIENT FOR RECORDING ANDTRANSPORTING$!FRAME COMPATIBLEFORMATTED$CANBEROUTEDTHROUGH THOUSANDSOFTYPESOF$EQUIPMENTANDWILLNEVERGETOUTOFSYNC

4HE&#&SARETRANSITIONFORMATSTHATAREEXPECTEDTODISAPPEARFROMTHEPROFES SIONALUNIVERSEASTHE$TRANSITIONPROGRESSES4HEYARELIKELYTOHAVEALONGER LIFE IN CONSUMER ELECTRONICSWHERE THEIRMAIN APPLICATION IS THE($-)A STANDARDTHATEMBEDS$SIGNALS INTOASINGLE($LINKFROMTHE"LU RAY$ISC

Telecast Corporation: http://www.telecast-fiber.com/

copperhead-3400-3D/

PLAYER TO THE464HE$CONVERSION LENSESGENERATE3"3&#&THAT ISCAPTURED ANDRECORDEDASITISONTHESUPPORTANDEVENTUALLYSENTTOTHE46ACCORDINGLY

4HEMAIN CONCERNWITH &#&S IS THE DANGER OF SEEING THEM STACKED ATOP ONE ANOTHER)FAN3"3ANDAN4!"&#&AREUSEDCONSECUTIVELYTHERESULTINGSIGNAL ISAQUARTER($MARGINALLYBETTERTHAN3$

ADVANCED FCF

&RAME COMPATIBLEFORMATQUALITYCANBEOPTIMIZEDWITHASMARTERDECIMATION SCHEMETHEquincunxORcheckerboardFORMATALSOCALLEDTHEmeshFORMAT

!QUINCUNX1X $ IMAGE IS COMPOSEDOFPIXELSALTERNATELY TAKEN FROM LEFT ANDRIGHTIMAGESINACHECKERBOARDPATTERN4HISFORMATISALSOKNOWNASDLP BECAUSE IT HAS BEEN USED IN $ CAPABLE 2046S SINCE )T EXISTS IN TWO TYPES NATIVE 1X WITH LEFT AND RIGHT IMAGES COMPOSED TOGETHER AND REBUILT 1XWITHLEFTANDRIGHTIMAGESRECONSTRUCTEDONTHELEFTANDRIGHTPARTSOFTHE FRAME!NATIVE1XLOOKSLIKEAMIXANDAREBUILT1XLOOKSLIKEASIDE BY SIDEPICTURE"OTHPRESENTHIGH FREQUENCIES!NATIVE1X ISBARELY COMPATIBLE WITHANYDIGITALCOMPRESSIONWHEREASAREBUILT1XWILLJUSTREQUIREAHIGHERBIT STREAMTHANA REGULARSIDE BY SIDE TOPRESERVE ITSADDITIONALVISUAL RESOLUTION 4HISSUBSAMPLINGALLOWSFORAMUCHBETTERIMAGERECONSTRUCTIONBECAUSEEACH MISSING PIXEL CAN BE REBUILT FROM FOUR NEIGHBORS RATHER THAN ONLY TWO AND ALIASINGARTIFACTSARELESSNOTICEABLE

!PROPRIETARYVERSIONOF THECHECKERBOARDWASPATENTEDBY3ENSIO4HEIRPRO CESS RELIES ON PRE lLTERING THE IMAGES AND POST PROCESSING THEM TO REGENER ATE EVENMORE VISUAL RESOLUTION 4HE CLAIM IS THAT OF THE RESOLUTION IS

PRESERVED 4HE 3ENSIO ENCODING IS RECOGNIZED AS THEMOST ADVANCED AND EFl CIENT&#&FORMATBYTHETRANSPORTINDUSTRYANDISDEPLOYEDINMOSTTRANSPORT PROVIDERSFACILITIESOFFERING$SERVICES

FRAME PACKING

4HETWOSTREAMSOFFPSSTEREOSCOPICCONTENTCANBESTACKEDTOGETHERINTOSIN GLEFPSMONOSCOPICFORMAT4HATSWHAT$IGITAL#INEMA)NITIATIVES$#) THE JOINTVENTUREOFTHEMAJOR(OLLYWOODSTUDIOSDOESWITH$MOVIESENCODED AND TRANSPORTED AS FPS CONTENT )T IS CRUCIAL TO PROPERLY mAG THE FRAMES IN ANCILLARYMETADATA SO THAT THE LEFT AND RIGHT IMAGES ARE PROPERLY RESTITUTED /THERWISETHEYLLBEOUTOFSYNCBYONEFRAME

DIRECTING LIVE 3D -OST OF THE EXPERIENCE IN LIVE $ PRODUCTION IS IN SPORTING EVENTS WHICH CLEARLYLEADTHEINDUSTRYWITHCONCERTSFOLLOWINGBEHIND3PORTSBROADCASTSFOL LOW A RITUALIZED STORYTELLING PROCESSWITH THEMAIN CAMERAS ONHIGH GROUND DOINGUPTOOFTHEAIRTIMEASWELLASCLOSE UPSONSOMEACTIONSANDALOT OFREPLAYSANDGRAPHICS!$PRODUCTIONTRIES TOREVISIT THE46SPORTS LITURGY BRINGINGITSOWNWOWSHOTSWITHOUTBREAKINGTHEMAGICANDTHESTORY

If the audience says “The 3D was great, but we didn’t get the game,” we failed.