chapter  6
54 Pages

Opinions on Creative Stereoscopy

Stereoscopy: A 3D Cinematography? 7HILE THE SEARCH FOR VOLUMETRIC AND SPATIAL PRESENTATION PUNCTUATES ART HIS TORYTHECONDITIONSFORTHEEXISTENCEOFASTEREOSCOPICARTFORMREMAINUNCLEAR 7HENWESPEAKOFSTEREOSCOPYTODAYWEDONTQUITEKNOWWHETHERITCONSISTS OFANEVOLUTIONOFCINEMAOROFACINEMAOFITSOWNKIND&ORTHISREASONWE WILLBEGINBYEXAMININGWHICHDISTANTORRECENTARTFORMSCANSHEDLIGHTONTHE RELATIONSHIPBETWEENSTEREOSCOPYAND$

%VERYONEKNOWSCINEMADOESNOTNEEDVOLUMETRICPRESENTATION INORDER TOEXIST &IHMAN AND %YZIKMAN KNOWN FOR THEIR WORK ON HOLOGRAPHY DElNED IT AS AN INDUSTRIALARTINTHEFOOTSTEPSOF7ALTER"ENJAMIN,ETUSCONSIDERTHEindustrial arts SIMPLYASTHOSEREQUIRINGATECHNICALDEVICETOENABLETHEIRDISTRIBUTIONONAGREAT SCALE4HISISTHECASEFORCINEMARADIOANDVIDEO)NORDERTODElNETHESPECIlCSOF STEREOSCOPYWEOUGHTTOASKOURSELVESWHATPARTICULARSTATUSSTEREOSCOPYANDHOLOG RAPHYCANHOLDAMONGTHEMASWELLASWHATRELATIONSHIPTHEYHAVETOONEANOTHER ANDTOTECHNICALLYMOREDISTANTVISUALARTFORMSSUCHASPAINTINGANDSCULPTURE

)N STEREOSCOPY THE TECHNICAL DEVICES AND AUDIENCE SYSTEM ARE VERY CLOSE TO THOSEOFCINEMATHISISBECAUSEINBOTHCASESASCREENINADARKROOMISBEING VIEWED4HISISWHYSTEREOSCOPYISVERYOFTENCONSIDEREDTHENATURALEVOLUTION OF$CINEMATHENEWSTAGEINCINEMATICTECHNIQUES

"UT DOES THIS PERCEPTIONWHICH SEEMS TO RECOGNIZE THE VALUE OF STEREOSCOPY GIVEITACHANCETOEXISTVIABLYANDTOBECOME LIKE$CINEMAANARENAFORA MISE EN SCÒNECONSTANTLYRENEWEDAPRACTICEREINVENTEDEACHMOMENTONEVERY SETINEVERYEDITINGROOMINEVERYAUDITORIUMORONEVERYCOLORTIMINGDEVICE

! COMPARISON WITH HOLOGRAPHY SHEDS LIGHT ON THIS QUESTION &OR WHEN WE SPEAKOF$DOWEREALLYSPEAKOFSTEREOSCOPY/RISITRATHERUNCONSCIOUSLY

OFHOLOGRAPHYATRULYVOLUMETRICPRESENTATION)TISCLEARTHATTHEDElNITERUP TUREBETWEENCINEMAAND$WOULDBEMOREONTHESIDEOFHOLOGRAPHY

4HE EXPERIENCE WE HAVE OF HOLOGRAPHIC IMAGES DOES NOT ENABLE US TO KNOW WHETHER SUCH IMAGES COULD BE COMBINED WITH THE ARTISTIC PRACTICES OF STERE OSCOPY(OWEVERWHILEWEARE STILLUNSUREOF THENATUREOF THE LINKBETWEEN STEREOSCOPYANDHOLOGRAPHYFROMTHEPOINTOFVIEWOFAPOTENTIALARTISTICCON TINUITYTHERECANBENODOUBTASTOTHEDISCONTINUITYBETWEEN$ANDHOLOGRA PHYORITSSTEREOSCOPICATTEMPT

)T IS INTERESTING TO RAISE THIS QUESTION BECAUSE IN THE ENDWE ALL DREAM OF A TRULY$LANDSCAPE"UTTODOSTEREOSCOPYWHILETRYINGTOCREATEAHOLOGRAPHIC TYPE IMAGE COMES DOWN TO CREATING IN YOUR FACE $ WITH TOO MANY INVA SIVE GIMMICKS 4HIS PRACTICE USED ON SHORT lLMS COULD BE DAMAGING TO THE VIEWERS BRAIN )T IS IMPOSSIBLE TO STRIP STEREOSCOPY AWAY FROM THE FRAME OF THESCREEN4HESEMBLANCEOFAHOLOGRAPHICIMAGEBYASTEREOSCOPICIMAGEhOFF THE SCREENvONABLACKBACKGROUNDWILLLONGREMAINTHELIMITOFTHESEPRACTICES

Stereoscopy and 2D Cinema 4HE DIFFERENCE OF OPERATION BETWEEN $ CINEMA AND HOLOGRAPHY IS IMMEDI ATELY OBVIOUS "UT WHAT IS STEREOSCOPYS PLACE IN RELATION TO THESE TWO TECH NIQUES)TGIVESANILLUSIONOFVOLUMEBUTWHATSORTOFVOLUMEISIT

0AINTINGWHETHER RUPESTRIAN2ENAISSANCEORMODERN ISUNEQUIVOCAL )T CAN NOTBECONFUSEDWITHSCULPTUREEVEN IF ITPRESENTSA RELIEFEMERGING FROMTHE CANVASˆSUCHAS2AINERSPLANEDEBRISOR2EMBRANDTSRENDERINGOF THESLEEVE INThe Jewish BrideˆTHERECANBENOCONFUSIONWITHPOLYCHROMEBAS RELIEF

Table 6.1

3CULPTURECANBEDIVIDEDINTOTWOMAINCATEGORIESLOWANDHIGHRELIEFONTHE ONEHANDANDMONUMENTALSCULPTUREONTHEOTHER)FAPARALLELCANBEMADE BETWEENSCULPTUREAND$WEWILLSUGGESTTHATLOWANDHIGHRELIEFSAREMORE CLOSELYRELATEDTOSTEREOSCOPYANDMONUMENTALSCULPTURETOHOLOGRAPHY

)NDEEDPAINTINGANDLOWANDHIGHRELIEFCANONLYBEOBSERVEDFROMANANGLEINFE RIOR TODEGREES JUST AS IN CINEMAAND STEREOSCOPY-OREOVER CERTAIN CONDI TIONSEXISTFORTHEIRVISIBILITYFRAMINGARCHITECTUREPROJECTIONSCREEN ANDPARTOF THEPIECEREMAINShINVISIBLEvTOTHEVIEWERSRELATEDTOTHEBACKSIDEOFITSSUPPORT

)N A SENSE THE STEREOSCOPIC IMAGE IS SIMILAR TO THE⁄2$ IMAGE WITHDEPTH DESCRIBED BY NEUROBIOLOGIST $AVID -ARR AS AN INTERMEDIATE NEURONAL STAGE BETWEENTHE$RETINAANDTHE$INTERPRETATIONTHATREACHESOURCONSCIENCE #LAUDE "AIBLÏ WHO TEACHES STEREOSCOPY TO ASPIRING CINEMATOGRAPHERS AT THE ,OUIS,UMIÒRE.ATIONAL3CHOOLIN0ARISNOTICESTHATIMAGESWHETHERIN$OR 2⁄2$REMAINATTACHEDTOTHEIRORIGINALPOINTOFVIEW4HESTEREOSCOPICIMAGE DOES COPY $ REALITY BUT DOES NOT EQUATE IT THE VIEWER CANMOVE HIS HEAD STRETCHHISNECKANDTHEVISUALWILLREMAINTHESAMEWHICHISOFCOURSENOTTHE CASEINDIRECTVISIONWHEREEACHTIMETHEPOINTOFVIEWISMOVEDANEWAPPEAR ANCE IS CREATEDˆANEWGLIMPSEˆINSTANTLY CONVERTIBLE INTO/$ REALITY ALLO CENTRICORCENTEREDONTHEOBJECTRATHERTHANTHEPOINTOFVIEW

4HEPASSAGE FROM$⁄2 TO$FROMhEGOCENTRICVIEWlELDv TOhREALITYBEFORE USv INDEED IMPLIES THAT WE ACCESSˆBY SLIDING ORMOVING THE EYESˆA VOLU METRIC VISION OF OBJECTS /$ INDEPENDENT OF THE SUCCESSIVE IMAGES hWHAT ) AM SEEING IS REALITY SPATIALIZED )$ ENGLOBING/$ ANDNOT A SEMITRANS PARENTHOLOGRAM)$ ORASTEREOSCOPICIMAGE)$⁄2 ATTACHEDTOMYCYCLO PEANEYEv )NCINEMAMOVING THEHEADHASNOEFFECTONTHE IMAGEOBTAINED THEIMAGECANNOTTHEREFOREGOBEYONDTHESTAGEOF$⁄2REPRESENTATIONANDIS BESIDESFULLYDEPENDENTONAPOINTOFVIEWPREVIOUSLYIMPOSED

&ORMOREONTHISSUBJECTREADERSmUENTIN&RENCHCANREFERTO#LAUDE"AILBLÏ h%NRELIEFLIMAGEETLESONvCahier Louis-Lumière*UNE

Stereoscopy: Disconnect or Continuity? 7HILE COMMON TOOLS AND TECHNIQUES ARE SOMETIMES SHARED THIS CRITERIA IS NOTSUFlCIENTTODIFFERENTIATEARTFORMS7EMUSTALSOCONSIDERTHEUSEOFTHESE TOOLS AND TECHNIQUES IN RELATION TO MATTER TO DIFFERENT DIMENSIONS AND TO TIME0HOTOGRAPHY CANNOTBE REDUCED TOA FORMOFPAINTINGNOMATTERWHAT PRACTICESTHEYHAVEINCOMMON0HOTOGRAPHYISTHERESULTOFATECHNICALINVEN TIONTHATALLOWEDTHEEMERGENCEOFANEWARTFORM

4HE INVENTIONOFCINEMAISONEOFCOMBINING TECHNIQUESADDING TOPREEXIST INGPHOTOGRAPHYACHAINOFPRODUCTIONWHEREINTHEENDANOPERATIONINDIS TINGUISHABLE TO THE BRAIN BUT ESSENTIAL TAKES PLACE AN ILLUSORY MOVEMENT BROUGHT ON BY THE RAPID PROJECTION OF lXED IMAGES THE PHI EFFECT &OR FUR THEREXPLORATIONOFTHESUBJECTREADERSmUENTIN&RENCHCANLOOKINTO*ACQUES !UMONT AND-ICHEL-ARIEDictionnaire théorique et critique du cinéma 0ARIS .ATHAN PAGE

-OREOVER IT IS THE DISCOVERY OF THE CRITICAL FREQUENCY THRESHOLD AROUND TO (ZTHETHRESHOLDATWHICHTHEBRAINNOLONGERPERCEIVESTHEALTERNATELIGHTING AND SHUTTINGOF THE CINEMATICDEVICES THATDETERMINES THE FREQUENCY ATWHICH THEIMAGESOFAlLMARESHOTANDPROJECTED)NTHEDAYSOFSILENTCINEMAIMAGES WERESHOTATIMAGESPERSECONDANDPROJECTEDAT(Z4HISWASTHERESULTOF ADDINGTWOSHUTTERBLADESTOTHEINTERMITTENTSPROCKETWHICHMADEITPOSSIBLETO CONCEALTHEPASSAGEFROMONEFRAMETOTHENEXTINTHEIMAGEPATHWITHOUTPER CEIVINGIMAGESTREAKINGONTHESCREENSTREAKINGBEINGTHEVERTICALLINESSHOWING ONTHESCREENDUETOTHESLIDINGOFNONOCCULTEDORIMPROPERLYOCCULTEDIMAGES 4HEFREQUENCYOFOBSERVATIONWASTHUSOF(ZORXIMAGESSECOND

4HETRANSITIONTOTALKIESBROUGHTSHOOTINGTOFRAMESPERSECONDBECAUSEOF THE READING SPEEDOF THE SOUND REEL IN THEPROJECTOR/NEOF THE TWO SHUTTER BLADES DISAPPEARED AND THE FREQUENCY STAYED AT (Z FOR THE VIEWERS BRAIN 4HEILLUSIONOFMOVEMENTWASTHUSMAINTAINEDANDCINEMAASTHEARTOFMOV INGIMAGESMAINTAINEDITSCONDITIONS#INEMAINCLUDESPHOTOGRAPHYWITHITS ARTOFAlXEDFRAMEANDLIGHTTIMESPERSECONDBUTCANNOTBEREDUCEDTOIT 0HOTOGRAPHYTHEARTOFTHElXEDIMAGEALSODOESNOTDISAPPEARWITHCINEMA 4HEATEMPORALASPECTOFPHOTOGRAPHYLINKEDTOTHECONTEMPLATIONOFONESOLE IMAGEISDESCRIBEDBY2OLAND"ARTHESINLa Chambre ClaireCamera Lucida .)N ITWESEETHEPHOTOGRAPHOFAYOUNG!MERICANMANWAITINGFORHISEXECUTION OVERACENTURYAGOFORWHOMWEhCONTINUETOFEARv0HOTOGRAPHYHADCREATED AUNIQUERELATIONSHIPTOTIMEWHICHWASREDElNEDWITHCINEMATOGRAPHYˆFOR THELATTERADDSTOTHEDIMENSIONOFTIMETHATOFMOVEMENT

#ERTAINTECHNIQUESCANALSOBEPRACTICEDINDIFFERENTINDIVIDUALARTFORMSAND BECOMBINEDTOALLOWFORTHEEMERGENCEOFNEWARTFORMSWITHOUTPARTICULARLY AFFECTING THE VIEWERS PHYSIOLOGICAL FUNCTIONING 4HEPASSAGEOF CINEMA FROM SILENTTOSOUNDISINDEEDTHEADJUNCTIONOFRADIOPHONICARTWITHCINEMATICART "OTH RADIO AND CINEMA SURVIVED BUT CINEMA EXCLUSIVELY COMES WITH SOUND FROMTHISINTEGRATIONON4HERELATIONSHIPBETWEENSOUNDANDIMAGECREATESA NEWDIMENSIONINSIDEOFCINEMAWITHOUTCHANGINGTHETECHNICALPARAMETERSOF THE IMAGEBUT ENRICHING IT!PLAYBEGINSBETWEEN IMAGE AND SOUND )NDEED CINEMAEDITINGHASCONTRIBUTED TODEVELOPING THEEDITINGOF RADIOSHOWSAND VICEVERSA)FAlLMMAKERSUCHAS!LAIN2ESNAISENJOYSLISTENINGTOTHERADIOITIS MOSTLIKELYNOTJUSTFORPLEASUREANDKNOWLEDGEBUTALSOFORITSENDLESSINVEN TIONOFSOUNDEDITINGTEMPORALAMONGSTOTHERTHINGS 4HESAMEGOESFORTHE PASSAGEFROMBLACKANDWHITETOCOLORWHICHHOWEVERWASNOTIRREVERSIBLE

#INEMAISSOMETIMESDESCRIBEDASTHESYNTHESISOFALLTHEARTS4ODAYITCANBE ENRICHEDWITHSTEREOSCOPYWITHOUTDISAPPEARINGINITS$FORM4HEREISNOREA SONWHYITSHOULDBECOMEANANCESTOROFSTEREOSCOPYIFTHELATTERADDSANARTI lCIALREPRODUCTIONOFDEPTHANDVOLUMETOTHEILLUSIONOFMOVEMENTANDTIME

(OWEVERWENEEDTOINSISTUPONTHEFACTTHATSOUNDANDCOLORHAVETRANSFORMED CINEMAWITHOUTCHANGINGITSRELATIONSHIPTOTHEVIEWERSCEREBRALFUNCTION7ITH STEREOSCOPYWEHAVE TO RECONSIDER THE FUNCTIONINGOF THEBRAIN AND THE CONDI TIONSUNDERWHICHWEMUSTlLMANDPROJECTTHEIMAGES)TISTHElRSTTIMESINCE

THE INVENTION OF CINEMA THAT THIS PROBLEM HAS ARISEN 7E HAVE BEEN ABLE TO MAKE$lLMSFORACENTURYTHANKSTOTHEANAGLYPHICPROJECTIONOFLEFTANDRIGHT IMAGESONTOONESOLESUPPORTHOWEVERANAGLYPHSARENOTSATISFYINGFORTHEBRAIN BECAUSEOFTHEIRDRAWBACKSLOSSOFCOLORGHOSTINGANDGREATVISUALSTRAIN3TARTING IN THE S SYNCHRONIZED DOUBLE PROJECTION AND POLARIZATION TO SEPARATE THE EYESPARTIALLYSOLVEDTHEISSUESTILLITWASIMPOSSIBLETOPRODUCESTEREOSCOPICCOU PLESWITHOUTDISPARITIESANDWITHALACKOFlXITYFORTHEBRAIN3TEREOSCOPYHADTO WAITFORTHEADVENTOFDIGITALINORDERTODEVELOPBECAUSEOFTHEABILITYTOSYSTEM ATICALLYCORRECTIMAGESPIXELBYPIXELANDOFTHENOWPERFECTlXITYOFPROJECTION

)NTHISSTAGEOFSTEREOSCOPYSHISTORYWENOTICEITSAMBIVALENCE)TFALLSONANAES THETICANDTECHNICALPLANEINTHECONTINUITYOFCINEMABUTITISNOTYETANARTON ITSOWN4HEREISNOSUCHTHINGASAPURELYSTEREOSCOPICAESTHETICINDEEDWECON STANTLYUSEAGLOSSARYANDNOTIONSBORROWEDFROMCINEMATOAPPROACHSTEREOSCOPY

.ONETHELESSITCREATESAPHYSIOLOGICALRUPTURE JUSTASTHEDIFFERENCESBETWEEN PHOTOGRAPHY AND CINEMA DID (ERE THE REPRODUCTION OF DEPTH OF VARYING GEOMETRIESREINVENTSANINTERPRETATIONOFSPACEIMAGINEDBYTHEDIRECTOR

.OWASFARASTHEPROCESSOFMAKINGAlLMHOWMUSTWETHINKOFTHISAMBIV ALENCE$OES THE PHYSIOLOGICAL RUPTURE ALSO IMPLY A RUPTURE IN THEMISE EN SCÒNE PRACTICES )S THERE CONTINUITY BETWEEN THE PROCESSES OF SHOOTING IN $ ANDINSTEREOSCOPY

4HEREARETECHNICALPARAMETERSSPECIlCTOTHESTEREOSCOPICMISE EN SCÒNECONVER GENCEANDINTERAXIAL4ODAYWEHAVETOOLSATOURDISPOSALTHATENABLEUSTOMAN AGE ANDMASTER THESE SPECIlCALLY STEREOSCOPIC PARAMETERS 9ET ONLY EXPERIENCE ALLOWSUSTOANTICIPATETHELIMITSOFUSING$MISE EN SCÒNEELEMENTSINSIDEA$ PRODUCTION4HISMIGHTCONSTRAINORRESTRAINTHEPOSSIBILITIESOFREUSINGYOUR$ MISE EN SCÒNEPALETTEOFTOOLS

4HEPROBLEM IS THEEMERGENCEOFVISUALDISCOMFORT FOR THEVIEWERˆTHIS ISWHAT WILLLIMITTHECOMBINEDUSEOFPARAMETERSFROM$AND$MISE EN SCÒNE$IGITAL TECHNIQUESMAKE ITPOSSIBLE TOAVOIDOR TOCORRECT SOMEOF THESEDISAGREEMENTS "YWORKINGONTHECOMBINATIONOFTHESEPARAMETERSWITHINTHELIMITSINHERENTTO THEPHYSIOLOGICALSPECIlCITYOFSTEREOSCOPYANARTISTICEXPRESSIONSPECIlCTOSTEREOS COPYCANEMERGE(OWEVERFORTHISTOHAPPENITWILLBENECESSARYTOIDENTIFYTHE GIVENLIMITSINORDERTODETERMINEFOREACH$AND$TECHNICALPARAMETERAND THEIRCOMBINEDUSETHEPOSSIBILITIESOFFEREDTOTHESTEREOSCOPICMISE EN SCÒNE

Parameters for 2D Cinema, 3D Stereoscopy, and 3D Holography 7ITH REGARDS TO ITS IMAGE PARAMETERS $ CINEMA IS MAINLY DElNED BY THE FOLLOWING

■ 4HEPOINTOFVIEW ■ 4HEFRAMEANDITSMOVEMENTINTEGRATINGTHESUBJECTSMOVEMENTASASPA TIALDECOUPAGE

■ 4HELIGHTINGOFTHEFRAMEDSUBJECT ■ 4HEEDITINGTAKINGITSVISUALANDRHYTHMICALASPECTSINTOACCOUNT

)N THISDISCUSSIONWEWILL LEAVE ASIDE THE SCENICPARAMETERS SUCHAS THE ACT INGTHESETANDACCESSORIESTHECOSTUMESTHEMAKE UPANDSOONWHICHARE GROUPEDUNDERTHECATEGORYTHATQUALIlESTHEhSUBJECTvAShANOBJECTCASTINTO LIGHTv AS DElNED BY 'UINOT AND 0OMMARD IN THEIR PHOTOMETRY CLASS AT THE ³COLE.ATIONALE3UPÏRIEURE,OUIS,UMIÒRE

(OWWILLTHESEPARAMETERSOF$CINEMATOGRAPHYCOEXISTORBETRANSFORMEDIN$ VISUALARTSFORMEDBYSTEREOSCOPYONTHEONEHANDANDHOLOGRAPHYONTHEOTHER

POINT OF VIEW

#INEMAREMAINSlRSTANDFOREMOSTAMATTEROFpoint of view:THEPLACEFROMWHICH WEOBSERVETHEOBJECTWEAREABOUTTOFRAMELIGHTANDlLM)TISTHEPOINTFROM WHICH THEDIRECTORWISHES THE VIEWER TOOBSERVE THEWORLD AND SPECIlCALLY THE SCENE THAT IS TAKINGPLACEBEFORE THE CAMERA7HENAMOVEMENTOF THE CAMERA ISINVOLVEDTHEEVOLUTIONOFTHEPOINTOFVIEWMAKESSENSEBUTALSOADDSBYTHE VARIATIONOFSURFACESOFLIGHTSANDSHADOWSAGRAPHICRHYTHMTOTHE$IMAGE

$URINGTHELOCATIONSCOUTINGORPREPARATIONOFA$lLMITISNECESSARYTOHAVE AVIEWlNDER INORDER TO LOCATE THEDIFFERENTAXESAND FOCAL LENGTHS JUSTAS IN $4OSCOPEOUTTHEVOLUMETRICLANDSCAPEITSELFISALSOIMPORTANTANDATTHIS STAGEREQUIRESNOOTHERTOOLTHANVISUALOBSERVATION&ORTHISWENEEDTOCON VERGEON THEPOSITIONOF THESUBJECTWHICHOCCURSNATURALLYANDAT THESAME TIMEONINlNITYINORDERTOSCOPEOUTTHESUCCESSIONOFVOLUMESINDEPTHAND THEIREVOLUTIONINTHESIMULATIONOFTHECAMERAMOVEMENTWEWISHTOOBTAIN 4HISSCOPINGOFVOLUMESISCRUCIAL

6OLUMECANOFTENBEBETTERAPPRECIATEDDURINGMOVEMENTWHENWEARECLOSE TOTHESUBJECTANDWITHARATHERSHORTFOCALLENGTH"UTITISDIFlCULTTOMAKEA lLMWITHOUTCLOSE UPSTHEREFORETHESCOPINGOUTOFTHESETSVOLUMESBECOMES DECISIVEFORTHEPLACEMENTOFTHEACTORSANDTHEPOINTOFVIEWBECOMESDECI SIVEFORTHEDISTRIBUTIONOFVOLUMESINDEPTHANDALONGTHEEDGESOFTHEFRAME

)NHOLOGRAPHYWESEEANOBJECTRECONSTITUTEDWITHLIGHTTHATCANBEOBSERVED FROM ALL SIDES 4HE VIEWERS PLACE BECOMES INDIFFERENT AND THE HOLOGRAPHIC lLMMAKERWILLNOLONGERASSIGNONESINGLEPOINTOFVIEW4HEREFOREBECAUSEOF THISVIEWERSPLACETHEAUDIENCESYSTEMOFCINEMAITSELFISQUESTIONEDORPER HAPSABANDONED

THE FRAME

4HE PRECISION OF THE CINEMATIC FRAME IS ONE OF THE ESSENTIAL PARAMETERS OF SHOOTING)TSRULESWHETHERTHEYAREBYPASSEDORNOTAREVERYPRECISEANDOFTEN COMEFROMPAINTING4HROUGHOUTTHECENTURIESPAINTINGEVOLVEDFROMASUBJECT DESCRIBEDINITSENTIRETYORAPORTRAITASTHEIDENTIlCATIONOFACHARACTERTOTHE CUTTINGOFTHEBODYINTOFRAGMENTSEVOKINGASUGGESTIONˆAPLAYWITHTHEFRAME ANDTHEOUT OF FRAME

4HEFRAMEISWHATTHEPAINTERANDNOWTHEDIRECTORGIVESTHEAUDIENCETOSEE )TSEXACTNESSIN$CINEMAISONEOFTHEFUNDAMENTALPARAMETERSOFTHEIMAGE )TCANESCAPENOONEBETHEYPROFESSIONALSORVIEWERSITCANNOTBECROWDEDBY ELEMENTSTHATDONOTBELONGINITANDITSVALUEISALWAYSINTENTIONAL

)NSTEREOSCOPYTHEFRAMEISIMPRECISE

%VEN THOUGH STEREOSCOPY IS PROJECTED ONTO A $ SCREEN THE PRECISION OF THE FRAME IS LOST IN COMPARISON TO $ BECAUSE OF THE ZONES OF DISPARITY AROUNDITSDEPTHCREATEDBYBINOCULARSHOOTINGALLOWINGSTEREOSCOPICVISION !NYTHING ENTERING THE lELD ON THE EDGE OF THE FRAME IS VISIBLE BY ONE EYE BEFORE THEOTHER4HIS ISGENERALLY IRRELEVANT IF THEVOLUMETRY IS SOFTAND THE SUBJECT IS IN A ZONEWITHMODERATE CONTRAST 4HIS VISUAL DISCREPANCY IS NOT EASILYQUANTIlABLETODAYANDIS THERESULTOFANACCUMULATIONOFPARAMETERS THATWILLMAKEITACCEPTABLEORNOT)NALLCASESJUSTASINLOWANDHIGHRELIEF THE EDGEOF THE FRAMEBECOMES IMPRECISE FOR ELEMENTS TOPOPOUT REQUIRES THEUSEOFmOATINGWINDOWS)NBAS RELIEFOBJECTSONTHEEDGEOFTHEFRAMEˆ IN THIS CASE CAST INTO THEMATERIAL AS SEEN ONMANY HISTORICAL BUILDINGSˆ PRESENT VARIOUS DETAILS IN DEPTH THAT CAN EVEN GO OUTSIDE OF THE SCULPTED FRAME4HERE ISNOWAY TO SOLVE THIS IMPRECISION FOR IF THE SCULPTORWERE TO PLACEA FRAMEINSIDEOF THElRST FRAMEHEORSHEWOULDSTILL FACETHEINDECI SIONOFTHEEDGESOFTHISINCLUDEDFRAME

4HE STEREOSCOPIC FRAME PRESENTS ANALOGOUS IMPRECISION 7HEN THE SUB JECT STANDS IN THEDEPTHOF THE IMAGEANDA RECTILINEARELEMENTSTANDSONTHE EDGE OF THE PROJECTIONWINDOW THE FRAME CAN GIVE AN ILLUSIONOF PERFECTION (OWEVER THIS IMPRECISIONRATHERTHANBEINGDETRIMENTALCANBECOMEONEOF THEELEMENTSOFSTEREOSCOPICMISE EN SCÒNEAHIGH ANGLEZOOMONALANDSCAPE OF HILLS OR ON THE BARK OF A TREE CAN GIVE AN IDEA OF THE VARIATIONS ENCLOSED WITHINTHEPROJECTIONFRAMEITSELF&INALLYTHEIMPRECISIONOFTHEFRAMEISDIF FERENTFROMTHEVARIATIONOFTHEFRAMELINKEDTOIMAGECORRECTION

4HIS IMPRECISE VALUE OF THE STEREOSCOPIC FRAME PUSHES SOME STEREOGRAPHERS TOWARDS CONCEIVING AN EVERMORE IMMERSIVE EXPERIENCE FOR THE VIEWER FOR EXAMPLEBYENLARGINGTHEPROJECTIONSCREENINORDERTOPUSHBACKTHEPERCEIV ABLELIMITSOFTHEFRAME

!SFORHOLOGRAPHICTECHNIQUETHEFRAMEFROMTHESCREENHASDISAPPEARED7E ARE SEEING A SUBJECT CREATED THANKS TO STRUCTURED LIGHT AND JUST AS INMONU MENTALSCULPTUREWECANTHEREFOREINTHEORYWALKAROUNDIT4HEREISNOLON GERAHIDDENSIDE7ECOULDIMAGINEADECOUPAGEINTERMSOFFRAMESWECOULD EASILYPICTUREABUSTPLACEDINTHEMIDDLEOFTHEAUDIENCEˆBUTCANTHEOUT OF FRAMESTILLEXIST

4HEREMIGHTBETWOTYPESOFHOLOGRAPHYONETHATCOULDBEOBSERVEDFROMTHE OUTSIDE JUST AS IN THEATEROR THE CIRCUS AND THEOTHER FROM THE INSIDE IN AN IMMERSIVESPACEJUSTASIFWEWEREPLACEDINSIDEASNOWBALLWHICHISDONEIN CERTAININSTALLATIONS

LIGHT

)NCINEMA THE SUBJECTASA LITOBJECT CAN RECEIVEANYCONTRASTANDANYOF ITS TEMPORALMODULATIONSONLYLIMITEDBYCINEMATOGRAPHICSUPPORT)TCONSISTSOF ON THE ONE HAND THE SOURCE OFWHITE LIGHT AND ON THE OTHER THE COMPLETE SHUTTINGOFFOF THIS SOURCEWHICH THEVIEWERCAN READAS THECONTRAST RATIOOF THESCREEN4HEEMULSIONEITHERASASUPPORTALMOSTENTIRELYTRANSPARENTORAS ABLACKIMAGECAUSINGANEARCOMPLETEOBTURATIONHASBEENUSEDINALLERASOF CINEMAˆTOSUGGESTASTORMFOREXAMPLEORTHEREPEATEDEXPLOSIONSOFABATTLE ORAlRE7HILETHEREISABLINDINGEFFECTTHATFORBIDSTHELENGTHYREPETITIONOF THESESUCCESSIONSOFONANDOFFNOTHINGONAPHYSIOLOGICALLEVELWILLCAUSEANY DAMAGEAS LONGAS THENORMS FOR LIGHTINGAND CONTRASTONPROJECTION SCREENS ARERESPECTED4HEBLINDINGEFFECTISPARTOFTHEMISE EN SCÒNEANDITSPURPOSE ISTOPROVIDEEMOTIONNOTTODAMAGETHEVIEWERSVISION

)N$CINEMATOGRAPHYLIGHTANDCONTRASTAREONLYLIMITEDBYPROJECTIONNORMS AND THE POWER OF THE PROJECTOR(OWEVER THE CASE IS VERY DIFFERENT FOR STERE OSCOPY )N $ HIGH CONTRAST SHOTS PARTICULARLY TOWARDS THE EDGES THROUGH FOLIAGE VIA BACKLIGHTING OR AMONGST THE DIFFERENT COMPONENTS OF THE SUB JECTCANTRIGGERAREALCEREBRALDISCOMFORTFORTHEVIEWER4HISISALSOLINKEDTO STEREOSCOPIC OCCLUSION DUE TO TWO SEPARATE POINTS OF VIEW AND TO GHOSTING 4HISOCCLUSIONISTHERESULTOFTHECONTRASTONTHElLMEDSUBJECTOFTHEDEPTH BRACKETANDOF THEPROJECTIONDEVICEON THEVIEWERSBRAIN4OGAUGE THEMIS EVENTRICKIERASOTHERPHENOMENACANFURTHERCOMPLICATETHISANALYSISSUCHAS THE POLARIZING EFFECT OF THE BEAM SPLITTERMIRROR OR THE LIGHT INTERACTIONWITH DIFFERENTSURFACES

,OWERINGTHECONTRASTISTHEREFOREADVISEDTHOUGHWECANNOTYETTODAYQUAN TIFYBYHOWMUCH/URTOOLSMUSTEVOLVEFROMSHOOTINGTOPROJECTION$URING SHOOTINGTHESENSORSMUSTCOVERAGREATERDYNAMICINORDERTOOBTAINIMAGES ABLETOMAINTAINVOLUMEINHIGHLIGHTSANDSHADOWS4HESESENSORSWILLENABLE ABETTER ADJUSTMENTOF CONTRAST DURING THE COLOR TIMINGOF STEREOSCOPICMOV IES4HEMATERIALFORPERCEIVING$MUSTALSOPROGRESSTHEGLASSESINPARTICULAR -ANUFACTURERSAREWORKINGONTHIS

)NHOLOGRAPHY STRUCTURED LIGHT SEEMS TOEMANATE FROMTHE SUBJECT ITSELF AND THEREISNOLONGERAPROJECTIONFRAME4HEHOLOGRAPHICREPRODUCTIONOFASUB JECTMIGHT REACH A REALISMOF SHAPES ANDMATTER THATWE CANHARDLY IMAGINE TODAY

EDITING

)NCINEMATHESHORTESTCLIPISONLYLIMITEDBYTHELENGTHOFPROJECTIONOFONE IMAGEINTELEVISIONITISLIMITEDBYTHEDISPLAYOFTHEINTERLACEDlELD4HELON GESTCLIPONTHEOTHERHANDISLIMITEDBYTHEDURATIONOFTHEPROGRAMOROFTHE lLMITSELFSUCHASIN(ITCHCOCKSRope WHICHWASACTUALLYCONSTRUCTED OF A FEW SHOTS WITH QUASI INDISCERNIBLE SPLICING OR IN Russian Ark , WHICH!LEKSANDR3OKUROVlLMED INA SINGLE MINUTE SEQUENCE SHOT AT THE 3TATE(ERMITAGE-USEUMIN3T0ETERSBURG

%DITING IN STEREOSCOPY ISNATURALLY SLOWER SINCE IN ANEW SHOT IT TAKES ABOUT ONE SECOND FOR THEBRAIN TOAPPRECIATE THENEWUNIVERSE TOBEEXPLORED IN ITS DEPTH %DITING DOES EXIST BUT AGAIN THE LIMITATION OF THE DURATION OF SHORT SHOTSISDIRECTLYLINKEDTOTHECEREBRALSTRAINRESULTINGFROMIT4HEREISAHYPOTH ESIS THAT YOU CAN REDUCE THE ACCOMMODATION TIME AT EACH CHANGE OF SHOT BECAUSEAVIEWERBECOMESMOREACCUSTOMEDTO$DURINGTHECOURSEOFVIEW ING4HISSEEMSUNLIKELYBUTITISDIFlCULTTODElNITELYDISMISSATTHISPOINT

$URING POSTPRODUCTION A DISSOLVE ENABLES A SMOOTHER TRANSITION FROM ONE SHOT TOANOTHER FORVOLUMETRIC LANDSCAPES THATARE TOODIFFERENT'ENERALIZING THESE PRACTICES CAN EASE THE CEREBRAL DISCOMFORT AND SHORTEN THE ADAPTATION TIMEBETWEENEACHSHOTBUTCANMOREDIFlCULTLYELIMINATEIT

)NPRACTICESTEREOSCOPICEDITINGMUSTBEDONEFROMGEOMETRY CORRECTEDIMAGES (OWEVERTHISISNOTALWAYSPOSSIBLEUSUALLYEITHERFORlNANCIALREASONSORTHE AVAILABILITYOFTOOLS

$URINGA$EDITINGPROCESS THEVISUALDISCOMFORT RESULTING FROMTHE LACKOF COLORCONTINUITYCANINTERFEREWITHTHEEDITORSDECISIONSASTOTHECHOICEOFCLIP AND CUTTINGPOINTBUT ITS EFFECTSON STRAIN ANDWORK AREKNOWNAND LIMITED )NSTEREOSCOPYTHECHOICEOFACUTTINGPOINTCANBEAFFECTEDBYDIFFERENTDEPTH VALUESBETWEENSHOTSANDEVENMORESOBYTHEUNCORRECTEDDISPARITYBETWEEN IMAGES 4HERE ARE THEN FOUR OPPORTUNITIESˆDEPTH AND UNCORRECTED RIVALRIES ADDEDTOACTIONANDUNMATCHEDCOLORIMETRYˆFOREXPERIENCINGVISUALDISCOM FORTWHENREVIEWINGASPLICINGPOINTWHILETHEREAREONLYTWOIN$&ORTHIS REASONWEMUSTELIMINATETHEONERESULTINGFROMUNCORRECTEDDISPARITIESRIGHT FROMTHESTART

)FAHOLOGRAPHICMISE EN SCÒNECANBEREDUCEDTOACONTINUITYOFASTAGEPLAY OROFA2OMANCIRCUSSHOWITTHEREFOREADHERESTOTHETHEATRICALRULESOFUNITY OFTIMEANDPLACEWEHAVETROUBLEIMAGININGWHATAMONTAGECOULDBEWITH OUTEXPERIENCINGTHETRANSITIONBETWEENTHEHOLOGRAMS4HUSWEDONOTKNOW WHETHER A MONTAGE WOULD REMAIN POSSIBLE IN THE SENSE OF EDITING SHOT BY SHOTINSTEADOFASYSTEMATICSUCCESSIONOFFADE TO BLACKS!LSOHOWWOULDTHE ENTRANCEOFANEWCHARACTERBEMANAGED

An Example of Ambivalence and Shooting Decisions: Depth of Field 7HEN"INOCLEBUILTTHElRSTMOTIONCONTROLCAMERAINANDWHICH FEATUREDMOTORIZATION OF ZOOMS STEREOSCOPIC PARAMETERS AND REAL TIME DIS PLAY IT SHED LIGHT ON A VERY INTERESTING PHENOMENON7HEN THE OPTICAL AXIS AND THE IMAGESWEREEXACTLY THE SAMEONE SAWA$ IMAGEWITHORWITHOUT GLASSES !S SOON AS THE OPTICAL AXES WERE DISTANCED FROM THE CAMERAS HOW EVERTHE$APPEARED)TWASDETECTEDMOREORLESSRAPIDLYDEPENDINGONTHE OBSERVERBUTBECAMEVISIBLEINAPROMINENTWAYWITHONLYAFEWMILLIMETERS OF INTERAXIAL7HEN $ SHOTS WERE INSERTED IN AMONTAGE BETWEEN $ SHOTS WITHA LOW INTERAXIAL CERTAINVIEWERSPERCEIVEDACONTINUITYOFVOLUMERATHER

THAN THEDISCONTINUITY THATWAS EXPECTEDWITH GOING FROM STEREOSCOPY TO $ THEN BACK TO STEREOSCOPY 4HIS PHENOMENON IS EVENMORE STRIKING ON SHOTS WITHDEPTHCONTINUITY

$URINGTHECAPTUREOFA*ULIEN#LERCCONCERTINA$CAMERAFRAMINGAN EXTREMEWIDESHOTOFTHEAUDIENCEANDTHESTAGEREVEALEDTHESKYLINEOF,YON ANDTHECONTINUITYEFFECTMADEITEVIDENTTHATITWASWITHINTHEBRAINSCAPACITY TOCREATEA$VISIONFROMA$SHOTEDITEDBETWEENSTEREOSCOPICIMAGES4HIS EFFECTISNOTPERCEIVEDBYALLINDIVIDUALSINDEPENDENTLYOFTHEIRSTATUSASPRO FESSIONALSORAUDIENCEMEMBERS

3IMILAROBSERVATIONSHADBEENMADEBYVIEWERSOF(ITCHCOCKS$lLMDial M for Murder IN RESPONSE TO THENUMEROUS$ SHOTS THATWERE INSERTED INSIDEOFTHE$SEQUENCESSOMEOFWHICHREMAINEDINVISIBLEFORSOMEVIEW ERS7ITHTHEUSEOFIMAGE CORRECTIONSOFTWARETHISPHENOMENONISEVENMORE PERTINENT BECAUSE OF THE COMPLETE ABSENCE OF ACCIDENTAL DISPARITIES BETWEEN IMAGESWHICHCREATESAGENTLERPROGRESSIONOF$TOWARDS$ANDBETWEENTHE DIFFERENT$SHOTS)NSUCHCASESTHEBRAINPERCEIVESCONTINUITYRATHERTHANTHE ACTUALSPLITBETWEENTHETWOTECHNIQUES

4ODWELLFURTHERONTHESEQUESTIONSWEMUSTPONDERTHESTEREOSCOPICSHOOTING EXPERIENCE$EALINGWITH THEDEPTHOF lELD FOR EXAMPLE IS A VERY IMPORTANT COMPONENT OF A $ IMAGE SINCE IT ENABLES A CENTERING OF THEMISE EN SCÒNE ONTHESUBJECT4HIS ISALL THEMORECONVINCING IF THESUBJECT ISASIMPLEONE ,IMITINGTHEDEPTHOFlELDONAlLMEDOBJECTSUCHASTHEFACEOFANACTRESSIS OFTENDESIREDFORPHOTOGENICREASONSORTOSOFTENTHEPARTOFTHEFACECUTBYTHE FRAMEBUTITISDONEMAINLYTOENHANCETHEINTENSITYOFTHEACTINGANDOFTHE EYES#AMERAOPERATORSTHEREFOREADDUPNEUTRALDENSITIESINFRONTOFTHELENSES INORDERTOLIMITTHEDEPTHOFlELD

4HEADVERSEEFFECTSOFFOCUSBLURINSTEREOSCOPYHAVEBEENDOCUMENTED7HATIS REALLYTHEREASONFORTHISOTHERTHANTHEFACT THAT IT ISNOTDESIRABLETOSHOOTALL lLMSWITHANAPERTURE%XPERIENCEMAKESCERTAINOBSERVATIONSEVIDENT IF THE VOLUMETRY IS SOFT THE CONTRAST IS REASONABLE IN ZONESOFHIGHDISPARITY AND THE VIEWERSGAZEISNOTATTRACTEDTOTHEBLURRYZONESTHENITISPERFECTLYACCEPTABLE/N THECLOSE UPOFANACTRESSASHARPVOLUMETRYWOULDOFCOURSENOTBEPHOTOGENIC

"INOCLEDIDSOMETESTSONLIMITINGTHEDEPTHOFlELDONFEATURE LENGTHTRAILERS FORSUCHlLMSASTHEFORTHCOMINGThe Krostons,DIRECTEDBY&REDERIK$U#HAU 4HERESULTPROVESSATISFYINGUPTOACERTAINLIMITATWHICHPOINTTHEREISINDEED ADISCONTINUITYORDISCONNECTINWHATTHEBRAINCANTOLERATE

,IMITING THEDEPTHOFlELD IN$ ISNOTONLYAESTHETIC IT IS ALSONARRATIVEOR MEANINGFUL )N THElLMHusbands DIRECTEDBY*OHN#ASSAVETESAMAN ANDAWOMANARE SITTINGON THEEDGEOFABED INABEDROOM IN,ONDON7E SEETHEMFULL FACE4HEYLIEDOWNONTHEBEDONEAFTERTHEOTHERANDMEETIN ALIMITEDDEPTHOFlELDWHENTHEYGETBACKUP.ATURALLYTHISPASSAGETELLSOF THERELATIONBETWEENTHECHARACTERSANDTHUSEVOKESTHERELATIONSHIPBETWEEN WOMENANDMEN,IMITING THEDEPTHOFlELD ISALSOUSEDONEXTERIOR SHOOTS

WHENONEWANTSTOCENTERANACTIONBYTHEDEPTHOFlELDASINTHECASEOFTHE FACE)TISALSOAMATTEROFAVOIDINGUNIMPORTANTDETAILSTHATCOULDCROWDAND INTERFEREWITHTHESHOT

4HEIMPORTANCEOFTHEUSEOFTHETECHNICALPARAMETERSOF$ASARTISTICPARAM ETERS IS FUNDAMENTAL IN$#ONSIDERTHAT$HASADEPTHBRACKETREDUCEDTO ZERO!SACONSEQUENCEEVERYTHINGTHATISVALIDIN$CANALSOBEVALIDINSTE REOSCOPYIFWEFOLLOWSTEPBYSTEPAGENTLEEVOLUTIONOFTHEDIFFERENTVARIABLES OF SHOOTING! GRAPHIC CURVE THATWOULD REPRESENT THE VIEWERS DISCONNECT OR THEENDOFHISORHERCEREBRALCOMFORTWILLBEMOREORLESSSTEEPDEPENDINGON THEVIEWERANDTHEPARAMETERSTHATAREVARIED

4HEPOINTOFDISCONNECTISEASILYIDENTIlEDWHENONEPARAMETERISSTUDIEDATA TIMEBUTNOTSOEASILYWHENTHEYAREPUTTOGETHER4OOLSFORMISE EN SCÒNEAND CONTROLSSUCHASTHE$ISPARITY4AGGERAREINTHISRESPECTINDISPENSABLEBECAUSE THEY MAKE IT POSSIBLE TO INTEGRATE GEOMETRICAL OR CONTRAST LIMITS ON IMAGES CORRECTED IN REAL TIMEACCORDING TOANAVERAGEAUDIENCE COMFORT SETTING 4HIS SOFTWAREALSOALLOWSOTHERLIMITSTOBEINCLUDEDFOREACHSEQUENCEACCORDINGTO THEDIRECTORSARTISTICSENSIBILITY

&ROMAPRACTICALPOINTOFVIEWITISESSENTIALTOPRESERVEACONTINUITYBETWEEN SHOOTING PRACTICES IN $ AND $ SO THAT THE SAME FOOTAGE CAN BE USED FOR BOTHCASES"UTDIFFERENTEDITINGPRACTICESAREREQUIRED)FTHEOPPOSITEISDONE DISCONTINUITYWILLBE FREQUENT AND THEVIEWERS COMFORTWILLBE AFFECTED4HIS QUESTIONISPARTICULARLYDELICATEINTHESHOOTINGOFSPORTINGEVENTSUSINGAFAST MOVINGDOLLYOR CRANEWHERE EXPERIENCE SHOWS THAT THE CLASSICALPRACTICESOF $CANNOTBEENTIRELYTRANSPOSEDTOSTEREOSCOPY

Stereoscopy Jobs 7E HAVE JUST RAISED QUESTIONS ABOUT THE AMBIVALENCE OF STEREOSCOPY WHICH DEPENDSONCINEMAWHILEALSOHAVINGTOBREAKFROMITANDlNDITSOWNMEANS )F STEREOSCOPY TRIGGERS A REEVALUATIONOFMISE EN SCÒNEAND SHOOTINGPRACTICES ANDTHENECESSITYTOCREATEPOSTPRODUCTIONIMAGESBEYONDTHEEDITINGPROCESS WHICHNEWSKILLSWILLITREQUIREFROMTHECREWANDTHETECHNICIANSINVOLVEDIN ITSMAKINGANDINTHESHORT TERMINITSINVENTION4HEREISNTACOMPLETEDIS CONTINUITYBETWEENSTEREOSCOPYAND$BUTRATHERTHENEEDFORAVARIATION7E NEEDTOTESTANDUSEALLTHEVARIABLESOF$WHILEBEINGAWAREOFTHELIMITSOF BRAINCOMFORTANDOFTHEACCUMULATIONEFFECT

)TISALSOIMPOSSIBLETOSTRIPTHESTEREOGRAMFROMTHESCREENANDTOTRANSFORM IT INTOAHOLOGRAM3TEREOSCOPY IS INCLUDED IN THEREALMOFCINEMABUTDOES NOTCOVERALLOFTHEPOSSIBILITIESOFFEREDANDUSEDBY$WITHOUTCREATINGADIS CONNECT INWHAT THE VIEWERSBRAIN CAN TOLERATE RELATIVE TO STEREOSCOPYSOWN PARAMETERS 3O THE USE OF TECHNICAL SHOOTING PARAMETERS IN A STEREOSCOPIC MISE EN SCÒNE LIES INSIDE THEPLAYWITHIN THESE LIMITS )TS CONCEPTION ISMADE BYMODULATINGTHEDEPTHVALUETHROUGHOUTTHEPROCESSSEQUENCEBYSEQUENCE SHOT BY SHOT!ND THEONE TO GIVE SENSE TO THISWHOLE CONCEPTION IS NOT THE

STEREOGRAPHERBUTTHEDIRECTOR/NLYTHEDIRECTORCANTHINKABOUTTHEVOLUME THROUGHOUTTHElLMDEPENDINGONTHEAESTHETICTHEEMOTIONSANDTHEMEAN INGHEORSHEWISHESTOCONVEYTOTHEVIEWER

)T IS A COMMONLY ACCEPTED CONCEPT THAT A$lLMMUSTBEWRITTEN FOR STERE OSCOPY4HISPOINT CANBE ARGUED IF THEDIRECTOR IS INVOLVED IN THEWRITINGOF THESCRIPTANDISALREADYIMAGININGTHEPRINCIPLESSHEWILLBEUSINGDURINGHER SHOOT SHEWILLORGANIZE THE SUCCESSIONOF SEQUENCES ACCORDING TO THE STEREO SCOPICDIRECTINGSHEHASINMIND

4HERE IS NO TOPIC THAT CANNOT INSPIRE A $MOVIE IF THE DIRECTOR DECIDES SO 7HYWOULDITBEANYDIFFERENTFORSTEREOSCOPY4HEARTISTICRENDERINGINTOSTE REOSCOPIC FORM ONLY EXISTS IN THE DIRECTORSMIND IN ITS PROCESS OF TECHNICAL REALIZATIONBYHISORHERASSOCIATES

)T ISWHILECREATING THESHOOTINGSCRIPTANDOR THESTORYBOARD THAT INDICATIONS RELATIVE TO STEREOSCOPY COME INTOPLAY(OW SHOULDWE ANSWER THEQUESTION h7HAT DENOTES WHETHER A SCREENPLAY WAS WRITTEN FOR $v WHICH WAS ASKED DURING AMEETING OF THE #34 #OMMISSION 3UPÏRIEURE 4ECHNIQUE DU #ENTRE .ATIONAL DE LA#INÏMATOGRAPHIE 4HE ONLY COHERENT ANSWER IS hBECAUSE THE DIRECTORCONCEIVEDOFHISMOVIEIN$v

4HE PROFESSION MOST CLOSELY RESEMBLING THAT OF A STEREOGRAPHER IS A SPECIAL EFFECTS 3&8 SUPERVISOR7ECANESTABLISHAPARALLELBETWEEN THE TWOBECAUSE OFTHESIMILARITYOFTHEIRINTERVENTIONSTHROUGHOUTALLTHESTAGESOFPRODUCTION 4HE STEREOGRAPHER MUST KNOW THE SHOOTING CONDITIONS THE POSTPRODUCTION OPERATIONSANDTHEIRFOLLOW UPINTHEDIGITALLABALLTHEWAYTOTHEPROJECTION OFTHEMOVIE

*UST AS WITH THE 3&8 SUPERVISOR THE STEREOGRAPHER IS lRST AND FOREMOST THE DIRECTORSADVISOR(ISROLEISTOGETTHECREWSANDTOOLSTOCREATETHEDIRECTORS DESIREDMOODONTHEWHOLElLMUPTOITSlNALIZATION(EMUSTTHEREFORELIS TENTOTHE$0WHOREMAINSRESPONSIBLEFORTHEIMAGEANDALSOWORKSWITHTHE HEADSETDECORATORSCOSTUMEDESIGNERSANDALLTHECREWMEMBERSCONTRIBUTING TOTHEMAKINGOFAlLM

THE STEREOGRAPHER’S CREW ON A SHOOT

4HE STEREOGRAPHER HAS THE ASSISTANCE OF TECHNICIANSWHO ENSURE THE PRACTICAL TASKSRELATEDTORIGSVISUALIZATIONDEVICESANDLABFOLLOW UP4HESEPEOPLEARE ADDEDTOTHElLMCREWANDMANAGETHETASKSPURELYPERTAININGTOSTEREOSCOPY

4HETECHNICIANSTEREOGRAPHERADJUSTSTHERIGANDMAKESSUREALLTHEOPTICALAXES ANDVOLUMETRICPARAMETERSMATCH THEDIRECTORSDESIRES5SUALLY SHE IS AlRST ASSISTANTOPERATORBUTSHEDOESNOTREPLACETHEONEFORTHElLM

4HE $ VISION ENGINEERMANAGES THE TOOLS FOR STEREOSCOPIC VISION IN ORDER TO GIVEALERTSABOUTTHEVISIBLEmAWSORTHECHANGESNEEDEDTOTHESHOTBEINGPRE PARED(EMAKES SURE LEFTAND RIGHT IMAGESPRESENT THE LEASTAMOUNTOF FAULTS AND THAT THE NECESSARY CORRECTION IN LIVE OR IN POST ONLY RELATES TO A TINY

PERCENTAGEOF THE IMAGE!GAIN$CORRECTIONAIMSTOELIMINATETHE IMPERFEC TIONSTHATCANNOTBETAKENCAREOFBYTHECAMERASYSTEMRATHERTHANRECTIFYPOOR SHOTSWHILECONSIDERINGTHERISKOFREDUCINGTHElNALIMAGEQUALITYBYREFRAMING ORINTRODUCINGARTIFACTSWHENCORRECTINGIMPORTANTDISPARITIES

4HEASSISTANTSTEREOGRAPHERINCHARGEOFFOLLOWINGUPONTHERUSHESATTHELAB HASTHERESPONSIBILITYFORSUBMITTINGAWRITTENREPORTTOTHESTEREOGRAPHERAND TO THEENTIRE IMAGEANDPOSTPRODUCTIONCREWAFTERAVIEWINGONABIG SCREEN 4HIS REPORT QUITE THE TECHNICALMEMOIR AIMS TO FORESEE THE POSTPRODUCTION OPERATIONSBUT ALSO TOWARN THE CREWOFDEFECTS THATMAYHAVE ESCAPED THEIR SCRUTINY

THE STEREOGRAPHER’S PLACE IN THE CREW

$URINGTHElRSTFEATURElLMONWHICH"INOCLEWASINCHARGEOFSTEREOSCOPYWE THOUGHTITWASNECESSARYFORTHEIMAGETECHNICIANSTORECEIVESPECIlCTRAINING ASITISTRULYESSENTIALTHATALLTECHNICIANSWORKINGONA$lLMBESENSITIZEDTO STEREOGRAPHY

4HElRST STEREOGRAPHERMUSTBE THEDIRECTORBUT THEENTIRECREWMUSTACQUIRE SKILLS IN THIS UNIQUE CINEMATIC lELD SO THAT EVERY PROCESS WILL INTEGRATE THE THIRDDIMENSIONANDTAKEINTOACCOUNTITSCONSEQUENCESONTHEVIEWERSBRAIN

7E SYSTEMATICALLYADVISEPRODUCERSANDDIRECTORS TO SHOOTA TRAILERORA SHORT BEFORESHOOTINGA FEATURElLM4HEREASON ISVERYSIMPLE )F THEDIRECTORDOES NOTUNDERSTANDTHEUSEOFTECHNICALPARAMETERSREmECTIONSANDMISE EN SCÒNE APPLICATIONSTHAT$ALLOWSSHEWILLREALLYBEMAKINGA$lLMTOWHICHVOL UMEHASBEENADDED)NOTHERWORDSSHEWILLBEADIRECTORTHATALLOWSAh$ MAKERvTOADDATECHNICALLAYERASOPPOSEDTOAlLMMAKERTHATCOMBINESTHE ENSEMBLEOF TECHNICALPARAMETERS FOR THEUNITYOFAlLM4HIS ISWHY THESTE REOGRAPHER MUST lRST AND FOREMOST TRANSMIT HIS KNOWLEDGE TO THE DIRECTOR ANDTHEENTIRECREW

&ORTUNATELY THESE PARAMETERS CAN BE LEARNED VERY FAST *UST AS /RSON7ELLES JOKINGLYCLAIMEDTOHAVELEARNEDTHETECHNIQUESOFCINEMAWITHINONEMORN INGACONTEMPORARYDIRECTORCANSEIZETHESEQUICKLY7HAT/RSON7ELLESREALLY LEARNEDWITHINONEMORNINGWASHOWTOREmECTONTHEUSEOFSHOOTINGPARAM ETERSNOTHOWTOREPLACE'REG4OLANDBEHINDTHECAMERA3OTHESTEREOGRAPHER CANHELPTHEDIRECTORBYWORKINGWITHHIMTOCONSIDERTHESTEREOSCOPYANDITS USEFORRENDERINGEMOTIONANDMEANING4HERULESARESIMPLEBUTTHEAPPLICA TIONANDINVENTIONENABLEDBYTHEIRCOMBINATIONISINlNITEJUSTASTHEPARAM ETERSOF$ARE

!LL THE TECHNICIANSOFAlLMREmECTONTHEIRMEANINGWHENUSING THESEPARAM ETERSFORASPECIlCSEQUENCEBUTEACHWILLCONTRIBUTEACCORDINGTOHISSPECIALTY 4HE$0WILLREmECTONTHESTRUCTUREOFLIGHTINRELATIONTOVOLUMETRYANDOFTHE LANDSCAPES SPATIAL ARRANGEMENT IN DEPTH (E CAN NO LONGER RELY ON EFFECTSˆ FOR EXAMPLE BY SEPARATING THE BACKLIT SURFACE OF A CHURCH WINDOW AND THE LIGHT BEAM COMING THROUGHˆWITHOUT RUNNING THE RISK OF REVEALING THEIR REAL

POSITIONS&OR THIS REASONADDINGEFFECTS INPOST CANNOTBEAVOIDED )NSPECTING THEGEOMETRY CORRECTEDIMAGESMUSTHELPHIMTOSCOPEOUTTHEMANYTRAPSOFTHIS DOUBLEIMAGEOFITSEFFECTSONTHEEDGEOFTHEFRAMEOFITSCONTRASTANDMORE

-EANWHILE THE CAMERA OPERATOR AND GRIP HAVE TO ADDRESS THE CEREBRAL STRESS RELATED TO THE SPEED OF A MOVEMENT SUBJECT TO STROBOSCOPY OR BY AN ACTOR ENTERINGTHEFRAMEANDVIOLATINGTHESTEREOSCOPICWINDOW4HEYMUSTALSOVISU ALIZE THE FRAME AFTER VOLUME CORRECTION NOT BEFORE 4HE HEAD DECORATOR CAN NO LONGERUSE TROMPE LOEIL FALSEPERSPECTIVEORBACKDROPSWITHOUTWONDER INGABOUT THEIR STEREOSCOPICVALUEAND THE REVEALINGOFDEPTH THATWILLENSUE -AKE UP ARTISTS HAIR STYLISTS AND COSTUME DESIGNERS MUST BE CAREFUL WITH THEPRODUCTSTHEYUSE )NOTHERWORDSALL THEPROFESSIONSAREINVOLVEDINTHIS RETHINKINGEVERYTECHNICIANMUSTBECOMEASTEREOGRAPHERINHISORHERDOMAIN OFEXPERTISE&INALLYWHENMOVINGTHROUGHOUTTHESETSDEPTHTHEACTORSMUST COMPREHEND THE VOLUME INWHICH THEYMOVE ABOUT AND BE AWARE OFWHERE THEIRGAZEFALLSTAKINGINTOACCOUNTBOTHPOINTSOFVIEW

%VENTUALLY THESTEREOGRAPHERWILLBELESSNEEDEDTOTRAINEVERYONEONTHESET BUT SHEWILL STILL REMAIN THE ONEWHOMANAGES THE STEREOGRAPHERS CREW AND ENSURES CONTINUITYOFVOLUMETRYON THElLM INA RELATIONSHIPWITH THEENTIRE CREWWORKINGONAPRODUCTION

$URINGPOSTPRODUCTION THE STEREOGRAPHER SUPERVISES CORRECTION THEPOSITION INGOFTHEWINDOWFORSEQUENCESTHATWILLBESHOTINPARALLELOFTENTIMESSHOTS WITHSPECIALEFFECTS mOATINGWINDOWSANDTHEHOMOGENIZATIONOF THEENTIRE lLMFOREXAMPLEBYCREATINGDISSOLVESNOTOFSHOTSBUTOFDEPTHVALUE

A Turning Point in the History of Stereoscopy? 7HILETHEINVENTIONOFSTEREOSCOPYDATESBACKTOTHEMID SFORPHOTOGRA PHY WITNESS.ADARS EROTICPHOTOGRAPHSPRODUCED IN AND TO THEEARLY S FOR CINEMA THE ARTISTICPRACTICEWASNEVERMASTEREDBEYOND SHORTPRO GRAMSDESTINEDFORAMUSEMENTPARKSANDAFEWFEATURElLMSMADEWITHINAD EQUATETOOLS4HISDOESNOTMEANTHElLMSMADEWEREBADBUTSIMPLYTHATTHE TECHNIQUESAVAILABLEWERENOTYETABLE TOPRODUCEA RESULT ALWAYS COMPATIBLE WITHWHATTHEBRAINCOULDACCEPT

4HEREVIVALSOFSTEREOSCOPYDURINGTHETHCENTURYARELINKEDWITHTHENEEDTO FACETHEDANGERSIDENTIlEDBY!MERICANSTUDIOSINTHESITWASTELEVISION TODAYITISTHELACKOFCONTROLON)NTERNETCIRCULATION

4HE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN THE PREVIOUS ATTEMPT AND CONTEMPORARY ATTEMPTS IS ESSENTIALLY LINKEDTOTHETECHNICALCOMMANDOF$CAMERASETTINGSESTABLISHED BYCOMPUTERAND THEOPERATIONSMADEPOSSIBLEBYDIGITAL IMAGES FROMSHOOT INGTOPROJECTIONINANAUDITORIUM!TEACHSTAGETHEQUALITYOFTHE$IMAGEIN COMBINATIONWITHTHEVIEWERSCEREBRALCOMFORTTRULYALLOWSUSTOCONlRMAMAS TERYOF THE STEREOSCOPICMISE EN SCÒNE 4HISHYPOTHESIS PRESENTED IN4ABLE HASBEENPROPOSEDSINCETHEEARLYSBY2OLAND4HEPOTANDOTHERSTEREOGRA PHERSWITH"INOCLE

SHOOTING FOR CINEMA VS. TELEVISION

4HE PREREQUISITES ALLOWING FOR THE EMERGENCE OF $ TELEVISION INCLUDED STE REOSCOPIC CINEMAS CONDITIONSOF TECHNICALPRODUCTIONBUTALSO ITS ECONOMIC VALUE)TSEEMEDOBVIOUSATTHETIMETHATTELEVISIONWHICHIMPLIEDTHECAPACITY TOPRODUCELIVESHOWSˆTHATISINREALTIMEˆWOULDREQUIRETHECONCEPTIONOF REVOLUTIONARY TOOLS4HESE TOOLSONCEAPPLIEDTOCINEMAWOULDENABLEASTE REOSCOPIClLMTOBESHOTPRACTICALLYAS FASTASA$lLM4HIS ISWHY"INOCLE HAD CONVINCED 4HOMSON TODAY 4ECHNICOLOR AND ITS 2$ CAMERA BRANCH TODAY'RASS 6ALLEY AND !NGÏNIEUX TOMAKE THE lRST DIGITALMOTION CONTROL STEREOSCOPIC CAMERA )T ALREADY FEATURED ONE SINGLE COMMAND FOR BOTH THE ##5SADISPLAYSYSTEMWITHREAL TIME$PLAYINGAVISIONINGOFDISPARITIEShBY DIFFERENCEv ANAGLYPTIC ETC AND THEMANAGEMENT OF AXIS CONVERGENCE INTER AXIALZOOMFOCUSPOINTANDIRISBYMOTIONCONTROL

4HISCAMERAPRESENTEDINTHE LATESAT )"#IN!MSTERDAMALLOWEDUSTO SIMULATE TODAYS LIVE TELEVISION STREAMSBYPROJECTING TO THE AUDIENCE CONCERT CAPTURESONALARGESCREEN

Final Thoughts )NTHESTHEREWEREPREDICTIONSTHATAWIDE SCALECOLORIZATIONOFCINEMATIC WORKSSHOT INBLACKANDWHITEWOULD TAKEPLACEALONGWITH THE INVENTIONOF AUTOMATIC SYSTEMS OF TELEVISION COLORIZATION &ORTUNATELY THIS DID NOT HAP PEN"UT THIS CONCEPTOF TECHNICALPROGRESSMAYBEMORE EASILY REALIZEDWITH STEREOSCOPIC CONVERSIONˆWITH THE AIDOF A:MAP FOR EXAMPLEˆTHAN ITS COL ORING COUNTERPART 4HIS COULD BE USEFUL FOR SCIENTIlC APPLICATIONS BUT BY NO MEANS FORCINEMAOR TELEVISIONWHERE THERE IS THEDESIRE TOCATER TOANAUDI ENCEWHOMWEEXPECTTOBEDEMANDINGONANARTISTICLEVEL

4ODAYTHEDEMANDSOFNEWANDCOMPETINGMARKETSAREWHATISCARRYINGTHEDEVEL OPMENTOF$CINEMAACCELERATINGASWITCHTODIGITALSCREENINGROOMSANDENSUR ING NEW TECHNOLOGY TO TELEVISION VIEWERS ASWELL AS THE USERS OF NEWMEDIA/F COURSETHEREISSTILLTHEPOSSIBILITYTHATTHISMOMENTUMCOULDBESTOPPEDBYNEW PERSPECTIVESORBYTHESATISFACTIONOFHAVINGREACHEDANECESSARYANDSUFlCIENTSTAGE

4HE DEPLOYMENT OF $IGITAL #INEMA PROJECTORS IN THE THEATERS JUSTIlED BY $ ENABLEDTHEDIGITALIZATIONOFMOVIESANDTHEREFOREELIMINATEDTRANSPORTATIONNEEDS ITALSOENABLEDTHEPROTECTIONOFDIGITALCOPIESTHANKSTOWATERMARKING&ORTELEVI SIONTHETECHNOLOGICALCAPACITYTOAUTOMATICALLYTURNA$IMAGEINTO$MAYSEEM SATISFYINGBUT ITWILLHAVEASACONSEQUENCE THEPROGRESSIVEDESTRUCTIONOF$46

Table 6.2

ANDINSAMETHEPROCESSTHEABANDONMENTOFATRUEREmECTIONONTHEARTISTICPOS SIBILITIESOFACREATIVESTEREOSCOPY4HESTEREOSCOPICREVOLUTIONMAYTHENEXPERIENCEA SUDDENDEATHBOTHINTELEVISIONANDINCINEMAITSTWOMAINSOURCESOFREVENUE

&ORNOWTHERECENTSUCCESSOFSTEREOSCOPYISUNDENIABLEANDINCREASINGEVEN THOUGH$ IS OFTEN CRITICIZED ASBEING TOO GEARED TOWARDS SPECTACLE7EMAY

Table 6.3

HOPETHENTHATTHEDREAMOFSTEREOGRAPHERSANDAUDIENCESALIKEALSOENCOM PASSESTHETREMENDOUSPOSSIBILITYOFARENEWEDARTMEDIUMANDREFRESHEDNAR RATIVESCAPABLELIKEOTHERARTFORMSOFTRIGGERINGNEWIDEAS

Inception of Modern 3D )STARTEDTHINKINGABOUT$CAMERADEVELOPMENTINTHEMIDDLEOFTHES WHEN THE &## MANDATED DIGITAL TELEVISION !T THE TIME ) FORESAW THAT THE BESTUSEOFDIGITALTELEVISIONWASSTEREOSCOPICPRESENTATIONBUTTHATTHEREHAD TOBE APATH TO CREATE CONTENTONA REALISTICPRODUCTION SCHEDULEWITH REALIS TIC TOOLS AND TO SOMEEXTENT IN REAL TIME BECAUSE TELEVISION IS ABROADCAST MEDIUM 4HEREWERENO$TELEVISIONSINTHEMIDDLETOLATESANDTHERE REALLYWERENT ANY IN THE EARLY S THUS EVEN THOUGH )WAS BUILDING GEAR THATWOULDWORKFORTELEVISIONITALSOHADTOWORKFORFEATURElLMS4HISWAS ALWAYS THE PLAN !NYTHING THATWORKS FOR TELEVISION IS CAPABLE OFWORKING IN REAL TIMEˆWHICHMEANS IT WORKS EVEN BETTER FOR FEATURES BECAUSE YOU DONT HAVETHEEDITINGTIMELINEINAREAL TIMEBROADCAST

GETTING OUT OF THE THEME PARK NICHE

) HADDONE ANUMBEROF $PICTURESPRIOR TO STARTING TODEVELOP$ CAMERA SYSTEMSASADIRECTOROFPHOTOGRAPHY)WOULDBECALLEDEVERYCOUPLEOFYEARS TO SHOOT A $ PROJECT (OWEVER THEY WERE ALL THEME PARK OR COMMERCIALLY BASED)THINKTHElRSTPROJECT)EVERDIDWAS3IX&LAGSSensoreum.7ESHOTWITH THE!RRISYSTEMWHICHWASALENSADAPTORYOUDPUTONTHATWOULDMAKETWO PERFSLEFTTWOPERFSRIGHTANDlXEDINTERAXIALWITHVARIABLECONVERGENCE)TWAS MYlRSTPROJECT SO )HADNO IDEAWHATWORKED ANDDIDNTWORK"UT!RRImEX PUBLISHEDADEPTHOFCONVERGENCECHARTSIMILARTOADEPTHOFlELDCHART THAT TOLDYOUEXACTLYWHATYOURSETTINGSSHOULDBEBASEDONWHERETHENEARESTAND FARTHESTOBJECTSWERE)ACTUALLYHAVEONEHANGINGINMYOFlCEITSANINTEREST INGPIECEOFHISTORYANDITWASNTBADATSUGGESTINGSETTINGS!FTERWESHOTTHE Sensoreum,)GOTCALLEDTORESHOOTA7ARNER"ROTHERSlLMFORTHEIRNEWTHEME PARKIN!USTRALIAAdventure in the Fourth Dimension.!NDACOUPLEOFYEARSLATER )DIDANOTHERTHEMEPARKPIECE4HEYWEREALWAYSTHEMEPARKPIECES

4HEN WITH $IGITAL $OMAIN WE DID Terminator 2: 3D THOUGH ) WASNT DIRECTLY INVOLVEDINITBECAUSE)WASINTHEMIDDLEOFANOTHERPROJECT !FTERTHATITBECAME CLEARTHATIF$WERETOSURVIVEASAMEDIUMORTOBECOMEMAINSTREAMWEHADTO ADDRESSALOTOFISSUES/NEWEHADTOADDRESSTHESIZEANDWEIGHTOFTHEEQUIP MENTWHICHWASBIGANDCUMBERSOME0EOPLEDOINGTHEMEPARKPROJECTSWOULD USEITBECAUSETHEYWEREUSEDTOALLKINDSOFEXPERIMENTALEQUIPMENTˆBUTMAIN STREAM(OLLYWOODWOULDNEVERUSE SUCH EQUIPMENT4WOWENEEDEDADIGITAL BASEDCAPTURESYSTEMORITWOULDNEVERGOMAINSTREAMANALOGlLMAND$JUST ARENTVERYCOMPATIBLEWHENYOUTAKEBUDGETSANDSCHEDULESINTOACCOUNT

4HEME PARKS WOULD SOMETIMES TAKE TWO OR THREE WEEKS TO PREP A CAMERA BEFORETHESHOOTINGANDTHENYOUMIGHTONLYGETlVESHOTSINADAYBECAUSE YOUHAVETOREALIGNTHECAMERASBETWEENEVERYSHOTANDlLM)TWASADIFlCULT

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