THE Arch & Design MATERIAL TYPE HAS BEEN around since mental ray v3.5 and has been a factor in the ease of mental ray’s usabi l i ty. In 3ds Max 2009, this material begat ProMaterials, which were Arch & Design based materials that featured a stripped-down UI . In 3ds Max 2011 and later, the ProMaterials were renamed and redesigned to become Autodesk materials. In 3ds Max 2012 there is now a huge l ibrary of Autodesk materials that are specif ical ly designed to be even more accurate and easy to use. The Autodesk materials are an attempt to create one set of materials for mult iple appl ications, and are standard for both Revit and 3ds Max. This chapter wil l focus on the Arch & Design material as it covers concepts that are appl icable to any of the new materials. This chapter is not intended to be an in depth guide to al l mental ray materials because providing coverage of every material type would require a dedicated book, yet would not be necessary because so many of the thousands of material sett ings are dupl icates and the same concepts explained in this chapter wil l apply to al l material types. This chapter wil l instead focus on the process of creating and troubleshooting architectural materials, and in doing so, we wil l learn how to use the new Arch & Design material effectively within architectural scenes.