Means—which may be objects, events, states of affairs, or actions—enable (or are intended to enable) ends to be achieved. They are said to have instrumental value. However, their value may not reside only in their instrumentality, but also be intrinsic. Instrumentality, though, if artifactual or sufficiently diverse, may lead to something being considered of value. Inter alia, the chapter reviews the classic Trotsky/Dewey debate over “Their Morals and Ours,” in which the importance of instrumentality and efficacy are considered.