This chapter draws on the CFPS data to examine the economic well-being, including the living conditions, of Chinese children, with special attention to those living in poverty. We select nine indicators of economic conditions. Besides family poverty based on per capita net income and house crowding, we also include access to tap drinking water, clean cooking fuel, flush toilet, and trash collection facilities. Parents’ high school education and receipt of government aid are also included. We pay special attention to rural-urban disparities in various dimensions of economic well-being. We also compare the family economic status of children in different living arrangements, including rural children who are left behind by one or both migrant parents, and migrant children living with their parents in urban areas. Our analysis reveals rapid improvement in economic conditions for families in all categories, especially rural families, after 2010. However, despite the progress made, our findings show striking disparities in economic well-being between rural and urban children.