chapter  9
Evaporation and Distillation
Pages 22

Evaporation may be defined as the removal of a solvent from a solution by vaporization, but is usually restricted to the concentration of solutions by boiling. Crystallization and drying, which may also utilize the vaporization of a liquid, are considered in subsequent sections. In the pharmaceutical industry evaporation is primarily associated with removing, by boiling, water and other solvents in batch processes. However, the principles governing such processes apply more generally and are derived from studying heat transfer to the boiling liquid, the relevant physical properties of the liquid, and the thermal stability of its components.