chapter  7
4 Pages

Chemical formulae

Chemical formulae are a way to express the number of atoms that make up a particular chemical compound using a notation system made up of a single line of chemical element symbols, numbers, and other symbols and are limited to a single typographic line (Wikipedia, ‘Chemical Formula’, 2013: 1). Molecular formulae represent the number of each type of atom in a molecule of a molecular structure (Wikipedia, ‘Chemical Formula’, 2013: 1). Empirical formulae are the letters and numbers indicating atomic proportional ratios of one type of atom to another type of atom (Wikipedia, ‘Chemical Formulas’, 2013: 1). Chemical formulae can be written as follows (, ‘Structural Formulas’, 2013: 1): Common name: Formaldehyde Molecular formula: CH2O Lewis formula: H H H


Kekule formula: H H I H-O-H I H

The importance of chemical nomenclature is that the ‘language’ of chemistry is by way of signs and symbols that denote a specific property or action within a chemical structure. This monograph uses Fischer Projections of carbohydrates and linear notation systems for chemical formulae as examples for compression of polymer molecules. Herman Emil Fischer developed the Fischer projection in 1891 as a two-dimensional representation of a three-dimensional organic molecule usually a carbohydrate (Wikipedia, 2014, ‘Fischer Projection’: 3). A Fischer projection will give the impression that all horizontal bonds project toward the viewer and the vertical bonds project away from the viewer (Wikipedia, 2014, “Fischer Projection”: 1). Fischer projections are used to depict carbohydrate molecules and give a differentiation between L-and D-molecules with D-sugar carbon units having hydrogen on the left side and hydroxyl on the right side of the carbon backbone (Wikipedia, 2014, “Fischer Projection”: 1). L-sugar carbon units will have hydrogen on the right side and hydroxyl on the left (Wikipedia, 2014, “Fischer Projection”: 1). Fischer projections are used in biochemistry and organic chemistry to represent monosaccharide and amino acids as well as other organic molecules (Wikipedia, 2014,”Fischer Projection”: 2). The use of existing chemical nomenclature is to facilitate the ease of applicability, both theoretical and applied, to the use of an algorithmic complexity program for the polymer sciences.