The Nobel Prize for Physics 1977
The Nobel prizes were founded under the terms of the will of Alfred Nobel, a Swedish manufacturer of explosives. They were first awarded in 1901, with prizes for physics, chemistry, medicine, literature and peace; in 1968 the Bank of Sweden put funds at the disposal of the Nobel Foundation for a prize in economics. Prizewinners and others can make proposals; the decisions are the responsibility of a committee of Swedish scientists appointed by the Foundation. The announcement is made in the autumn; the prizes are awarded in December, and, excepting the prize for peace, in Stockholm.