chapter  Chapter 5
14 Pages

The scientific revolution

WithL.S. Hearnshaw

In the three hundred and twenty-two years between the death of Aquinas in 1274 and the birth of Descartes in 1596 there were, according to one American historian of psychology, no ‘great psychologists’. 1 Nevertheless the new psychologies that emerged after the end of this period were markedly different from that which prevailed at the end of the thirteenth century, and they were shaped not by ‘great psychologists’ so much as by radical transformations in outlook, ideas and society. European man, in the striking phrase of Butterfield, had donned ‘a different kind of thinking cap’. 2