This is the concluding chapter of the book, which analysed the processes and actors that caused the dramatic shift in church-state relations during perestroika. Furthermore, the book examined the way this change influenced the revival of Russian nationalist ideology and shaped the ideological and political scene of the post-Soviet Russia. The in-depth analysis of the church-state relations during perestroika underlines the continuity of the imperial ideology propagated by the Russian Orthodox Church (ROC), church-state interests and the increasing detachment of the Moscow Patriarchate from believers. The Russian national character and its historical heritage were inseparable from the Orthodox religious values. The improvement of the ROC status vis-à-vis the state was evident, especially after the millennium celebrations. The alternative (samizdat) press openly articulated criticism of the Moscow Patriarchate. It accused the Church leadership of total subjugation to state authorities and compliance with its foreign policy needs.