Concluding remarks and perspectives
The purpose of this study has been to investigate the relationship between the phenomenon of the 2011 Arab Uprisings in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) and the Islamist movements in Malaysia. For this reason, the researcher chose a questionnaire-based survey, as well as in-depth interviews, to examine the knowledge, perceptions and influences of the Arab Uprisings on the experiences of four selected Malaysian Islamist movements. Intensive fieldwork was carried out by the researcher in the autumn and winter of 2016 amongst 530 Malaysian Islamist members from the four movements – the Pan-Malaysian Islamic Party (PAS), the Muslim Youth Movement of Malaysia (ABIM), the Malaysian Muslim Solidarity Front (ISMA) and the National Trust Party (AMANAH) – across West Malaysia, particularly in Kuala Lumpur, Selangor, Perak, Kelantan, Kedah and Perlis. The researcher also managed to identify five lessons learned by members of the Malaysian Islamist movements from the experiences following the Arab Uprisings.