The structural restoration of monuments and historical buildings, being a part of their conservation, has only been recognised, as a special field of the construction technique, in the last few decades. The problem of structural restoration of monuments and historical buildings differs radically from repair and strengthening of conventional contemporary buildings damaged by accidental effects like seismic action. The conservation of monuments and historical buildings is one of the most important expressions of the contemporary cultural activities. For monumental buildings, emphasis is given to the preservation of their aesthetic and historical values, while the task to remain in use may be considered of secondary importance and, in any case, as consequence of the effort at fulfilment of the main task. The chapter also presents an overview of the key concepts discussed in this book.