Islam as Legitimation for "Royal Authority": On the Relationship Between State, Religion, and Politics in the Islam-legitimated Monarchies of Morocco and Saudi Arabia 1
The traditional monarchies are Morocco and Saudi Arabia. This chapter focuses on the relationship between Islam and the state, both historically and conceptually, these two Islam-legitimated monarchies will be examined. A general historical overview and an attempt to develop a conceptual approach to the subject will precede the empirical analysis, which will be followed by a discussion of the future prospects of Islam as political legitimation in the modernization process. Ali was declared the First Imam, and Shi'ite Islam took on in the course of its development in a later period the form of an Iranized national religion. According to the doctrine of Twelver Shi'ism, the world awaits the return of the twelfth, vanished Shi'ite imam, who will save the world as a Messiah. All forms of political rule until that time have been declared illegitimate.