Parliamentarians for Global Action (PGA) had been organized in London in 1977 by a small group of members of the parliaments of Britain, France, Canada and Japan who were interested in cooperating on disarmament issues. While PGA was in its formative stages, Olafur Ragnar Grimsson became a member of the Icelandic parliament. With the effort to launch a conference call slowly gathering momentum, PGA began to refine its political strategy. The United States, the Soviet Union, and Britain were legally bound to participate in a conference call. Grimsson developed the theory of what he believed was PGA's new approach to international relations. PGA could become "the guys who can afford to lose face, the ones who are in the business of being turned down." In PGA's New York office, Aaron Tovish spent the summer and fall planning how the organization should relate to the Third Review Conference under the Non-Proliferation Treaty, scheduled for the summer of 1985.