In the transition to socialism, one of the main instruments of social transformation is socialist ideology. This ideology consists of certain fundamental human values and a body of social theory concerning how to realize these values in social life. Social consciousness is a central concept in the Marxist perspective on social reality. Cuba offers another excellent case study of a revolutionary regime's continuing efforts to create a new ideological hegemony and social consciousness through various forms of ideological and cultural transformation. The development of a new culture began in Cuba with the nationwide literacy campaign carried out in 1961. It was the first major national mobilization campaign undertaken by the revolutionary regime. Important elements for the foundation of a socialist culture have been introduced there, but other elements are missing or contradicted by practices that reproduce nonsocialist values and patterns of behavior.