The electrometallurgy and materials program was reviewed annually at joint working group meetings held alternately in the United States (US) and the Soviet Union. Most of the electrometallurgy participants had previous scientific contact with the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (U.S.S.R). There has been a long history of scientific contact with Soviet scientists in electrometallurgy, especially in the area of steelmaking. The US-U.S.S.R. Joint Working Group in Electrometallurgy and Materials was established in 1973. The program was administered by the National Science Foundation for the United States and by the U.S.S.R State Committee for Science and Technology for the Soviet Union. In 1978, to reflect a broadening in the scope of activities that had occurred since the inception of the working group program, the name of the program was changed from the original "U.S.-U.S.S.R. Working Group on Electrometallurgy" to "U.S.-U.S.S.R. Working Group on Electrometallurgy and Materials."